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Industrial ecology for sustainableurban development- the case of Hammarby Sjöstad
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today, more than half the world’s population lives in cities largely dependent on resources and ecosystem services from outside their physical boundaries. Correspondingly, urban resource needs and waste generation have serious worldwide ecological consequences, and urban areas have become a primary driver of environmental change. In response, various sustainable urban developments have been initiated worldwide. Quite a few of these rely on strategies giving urban areas the characteristics of ecosystems, i.e., fostering urban symbiosis by integrating infrastructural systems to optimise the environmental performance of the system as a whole.

Whether or not the strategy of urban symbiosis actually contributes to sustainable urban development is, however, debated. It may support only short-term system optimisation, hindering the implementation of new technology crucial for the longterm environmental improvement of society, as that might require no symbiosis but substitution. Or it might actually support a complete transition to sustainable urban development.

Consequently, this thesis explores the research question “How can urban symbiosis contribute to sustainable urban development?” using the implementation of urban symbiosis strategies in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden, as a single-case study. The choice of a single-case study approach was an attractive approach as the sustainable development strategy implemented in Hammarby Sjöstad was clear and consistent: the approach aimed at sustainable urban development by using innovative technical solutions such as urban symbiosis, and not by changing the behaviour of the inhabitants of the district. This fortuitous “natural experiment” was useful, as strategies for sustainable development are often difficult to evaluate since they are often not very clearly or consistently applied.

Using results based on literature reviews, in-depth interviews, discussions with focus groups, and quantitative data, this thesis concludes that urban symbiosis strategies do not directly respond to path dependence, and that such strategies are as dependent on radical behavioural change as are transition management strategies. In addition, urban symbiosis strategies can optimise existing infrastructural systems and advance the planning of the sustainable urban district.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xii, 75 p.
Series
TRITA-IM, ISSN 1402-7615 ; 2014:01
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145150OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-145150DiVA: diva2:716823
Public defence
2014-06-02, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140514

Available from: 2014-05-14 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2014-05-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The development of a sustainable urban district in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of a sustainable urban district in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden?
2011 (English)In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 13, no 6, 1043-1064 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By 2012, Hammarby Sjöstad, a former large industrial harbor area in southern Stockholm, Sweden, will be a fully developed residential district containing approximately 11,000 apartments and accommodating 35,000 people. The transformation of the area began in 1996, and the development soon became renowned for its ambitious environmental program, inspired by Agenda 21 (United Nations in Rio declaration on environment and development. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), Rio de Janeiro, 1992) and the Sydney 2000 Olympics in Australia (Newman in Landsc Urban Plan 44:219-226, 1999). Using results based on literature reviews, in-depth interviews, discussions with focus groups, and quantitative data, this paper attempts to gain insight into how the environmental program influenced the planning and performance of the district with regard to sustainable urban development. In doing so, three important conclusions were maintained that could be valuable for similar projects concerning the planning and development of sustainable urban districts. First, the environmental program proved vital to the development process of Hammarby Sjöstad, specifically in its drive to create a sustainable urban district. When planning on improving the sustainability of future districts, such a program should be introduced and integrated earlier in the planning stage of the district. Second, the metabolic flows of Hammarby Sjöstad were reduced as a result of the integrated system-the Hammarby Model-of Hammarby Sjöstad. In order to reduce the metabolic flows in future urban districts even further, it is important to facilitate the integration of technical innovations into existing integrated systems. Third, this case study showed that there was a loss of valid and credible data related to the aims and goals of the environmental program of Hammarby Sjöstad. In future urban districts, it is of the utmost importance to include a clear structure of the assessment process in the environmental program, which would ensure the quality of gathered data and facilitate the development of even better sustainable urban districts in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Germany: Springer, 2011
Keyword
Case study; Metabolism; Sustainability; Urban planning
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-72020 (URN)10.1007/s10668-011-9304-x (DOI)2-s2.0-80054034692 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120131Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. The potential of the infrastructural system of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential of the infrastructural system of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, Sweden
2013 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 59, 716-726 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the integrated infrastructural system in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, also named the Hammarby Model, reduces the metabolic flows of the district, and to what extent the district is self-sufficient, in terms of generated energy. Furthermore, the paper aspires to help create a deeper understanding of the system in order to guide the implementation of similar models in other districts, creating more sustainable cities. The method has been to quantify the local mass and energy flows of the model, using the secondary energy generated within Hammarby Sjöstad as basis when creating the system boundaries of the calculations. The findings demonstrate that the Hammarby Model reduces the metabolic flows of Hammarby Sjöstad but that the district is far from self-sufficient in terms of secondary energy. The conclusions of the paper are that the development of integrated infrastructural systems is one way to help create more sustainable cities. However, in order to reduce metabolic flows even further, the efficiency of the system must be improved by integrating more renewable energy sources. At the same time less energy has to be used in the households.

Keyword
Integrated infrastructural system, Metabolic flows, Sustainable, Metabolic flow
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134064 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.027 (DOI)000323235700064 ()2-s2.0-84879503905 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131118

Available from: 2013-11-18 Created: 2013-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Implications of systems integration at the urban level: the case of Hammarby Sjostad, Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of systems integration at the urban level: the case of Hammarby Sjostad, Stockholm
2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 48, 220-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Systems integration is a trend in the quest for increased environmental performance in urban districts, yet its implications are not yet fully known. Hammarby Sjostad is a district in Stockholm, Sweden, designed with high environmental ambitions. These ambitions were later expressed in the Hammarby Model, an integrated infrastructural system aiming to minimize the metabolic flows of the district by closing its material and energy flows. Various integrated systems were already present in Stockholm when discussions began around the development of the Hammarby Model. Using a conceptual framework inspired by transition theory, this paper analyses the process of designing and building the Hammarby Model. Our aim is to create a better understanding of the implications of systems integration at the urban district level. The findings of the study show that systems integration may both enable and constrain further innovation. On one hand, integration facilitates the implementation of technologies that are add-ons or that solve a reverse salient experienced by the integrated system. On the other hand, technologies that are perceived to threaten the integrated system are locked out, prohibiting further optimization of the system.

Keyword
Systems integration, Sustainable urban development, Hammarby Sjostad, Innovation theory
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126898 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.09.012 (DOI)000320751000024 ()2-s2.0-84879903646 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130823

Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Urban symbiosis asthe development of a socio-technical network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban symbiosis asthe development of a socio-technical network
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145201 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-05-14 Created: 2014-05-14 Last updated: 2014-05-14Bibliographically approved
5. (Failed) mega-events and city transformation: the green vision for the 2004 Olympic village in Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>(Failed) mega-events and city transformation: the green vision for the 2004 Olympic village in Stockholm
2014 (English)In: Branding Chinese Mega-Cities: Policies, Practices and Positioning / [ed] Per Olof Berg and Emma Björner, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 155-167 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145204 (URN)2-s2.0-84958103140 (Scopus ID)978 1 78347 032 7 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20140514

Available from: 2014-05-14 Created: 2014-05-14 Last updated: 2014-11-18Bibliographically approved

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