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Temporal Consistent Depth Map Upscaling for 3DTV
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. (Realistic3D)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2578-7896
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. (Realistic3D)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. (Realistic3D)
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering: Three-Dimensional Image Processing, Measurement (3DIPM), and Applications 2014 / [ed] Atilla M. Baskurt; Robert Sitnik, 2014, Art. no. 901302- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Precise scene depth information is a pre-requisite in three-dimen-sional television (3DTV), e.g. for high quality view synthesis in autostereoscopic multiview displays. Unfortunately, this information is not easily obtained and often of limited quality. Dedicated range sensors, such as time-of-flight (ToF) cameras, can deliver reliable depth information where (stereo-)matching fails. Nonetheless, since these sensors provide only restricted spatial resolution, sophisticated upscaling methods are sought-after, to match depth information to corresponding texture frames.Where traditional upscaling fails, novel approaches have been proposed, utilizing additional information from the texture for the depth upscaling process. We recently proposed the Edge Weighted Optimization Concept (EWOC) for ToF upscaling, using texture edges for accurate depth boundaries. In this paper we propose an important update to EWOC, dividing it into smaller incremental upscaling steps. We predict two major improvements from this. Firstly, processing time should be decreased by dividing one big calculation into several smaller steps. Secondly, we assume an increase in quality for the upscaled depth map, due to a more coherent edge detection on the video frame.In our evaluations we can show the desired effect on processing time, cutting down the calculation time more than in half. We can also show an increase in visual quality, based on objective quality metrics, compared to the original implementation as well as competing proposals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Art. no. 901302- p.
, Conference volume, 9013
Keyword [en]
3d video, 3DTV, depth aqcuisition, optical flow, depth map upscaling
National Category
Signal Processing
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21927DOI: 10.1117/12.2032697ISI: 000336030900001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84901748474OAI: diva2:716786
Three-Dimensional Image Processing, Measurement (3DIPM), and Applications 2014; San Francisco, CA; United States; 5 February 2014 through 5 February 2014; Code 105376
Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2014-08-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gaining Depth: Time-of-Flight Sensor Fusion for Three-Dimensional Video Content Creation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaining Depth: Time-of-Flight Sensor Fusion for Three-Dimensional Video Content Creation
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The successful revival of three-dimensional (3D) cinema has generated a great deal of interest in 3D video. However, contemporary eyewear-assisted displaying technologies are not well suited for the less restricted scenarios outside movie theaters. The next generation of 3D displays, autostereoscopic multiview displays, overcome the restrictions of traditional stereoscopic 3D and can provide an important boost for 3D television (3DTV). Then again, such displays require scene depth information in order to reduce the amount of necessary input data. Acquiring this information is quite complex and challenging, thus restricting content creators and limiting the amount of available 3D video content. Nonetheless, without broad and innovative 3D television programs, even next-generation 3DTV will lack customer appeal. Therefore simplified 3D video content generation is essential for the medium's success.

This dissertation surveys the advantages and limitations of contemporary 3D video acquisition. Based on these findings, a combination of dedicated depth sensors, so-called Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras, and video cameras, is investigated with the aim of simplifying 3D video content generation. The concept of Time-of-Flight sensor fusion is analyzed in order to identify suitable courses of action for high quality 3D video acquisition. In order to overcome the main drawback of current Time-of-Flight technology, namely the high sensor noise and low spatial resolution, a weighted optimization approach for Time-of-Flight super-resolution is proposed. This approach incorporates video texture, measurement noise and temporal information for high quality 3D video acquisition from a single video plus Time-of-Flight camera combination. Objective evaluations show benefits with respect to state-of-the-art depth upsampling solutions. Subjective visual quality assessment confirms the objective results, with a significant increase in viewer preference by a factor of four. Furthermore, the presented super-resolution approach can be applied to other applications, such as depth video compression, providing bit rate savings of approximately 10 percent compared to competing depth upsampling solutions. The work presented in this dissertation has been published in two scientific journals and five peer-reviewed conference proceedings. 

In conclusion, Time-of-Flight sensor fusion can help to simplify 3D video content generation, consequently supporting a larger variety of available content. Thus, this dissertation provides important inputs towards broad and innovative 3D video content, hopefully contributing to the future success of next-generation 3DTV.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2014. 228 p.
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 185
3D video, Time-of-Flight, depth map acquisition, optimization, 3DTV, ToF, upsampling, super-resolution, sensor fusion
National Category
Computer Systems
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21938 (URN)978-91-87557-49-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-04, L111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Knowledge Foundation, 2009/0264
Available from: 2014-05-16 Created: 2014-05-14 Last updated: 2014-05-16Bibliographically approved

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