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Variability of score and golf ball trajectory in elite golfers
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. (BLESS)
2013 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]


Introduction: Ball trajectory in the golf swing is an important outcome variable for golf performance, however, no direct investigation of ball flight trajectory variability for pre-elite players has been conducted.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between average score and ball trajectory variability (for carry and lateral displacement) on pre-elite golfers both at and between two different clubs. 

Methods: Sixteen pre-elite/elite golfers were included in the study, 11 men and 5 women with a mean age of 22 ±2 (SD). An actual average (mean) score was calculated for each player’s first ten competition rounds. Subjects were then instructed to hit 5 balls, with focus on consistency, with their seven iron and then hit 5 balls approximately 70 metres with their preferred wedge. Ball trajectory variables were recorded using a Flightscope® Kudo Doppler radar launch monitor system (EDH South Africa (PTY) Ltd). Statistical calculation of averages, standard deviation (SD), normalised root-mean, coefficient of variance, performance error index (PEI= and Pearson’s correlation.

Results: The results from the present study showed there was no significant correlation between average score (76.2 ±1.9) and variability of ball trajectory, for the seven iron or wedge. Results also showed average seven iron CV for carry and lateral PEIdisplacement was 5% and 3% respectively, whilst average wedge carry CV for carry and lateral PEIdisplacement was 9% and 2% respectively.  Carry CV and Lateral CV PEI were moderately correlated (r=0.61, p=0.012) with each other for the wedge.

Conclusion: : Our findings show no correlation between shot variability and golf score, however we found weak correlation between carry and lateral variability for the wedge. In order for effective coaching more understanding into the importance of biomechanical variability and golf performance is required, further research is needed to better understand the implication of our findings

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 23 p.
Halmstad University Dissertations
Keyword [en]
golf performance, golf ball trajectory, golf ball variability
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25320OAI: diva2:716452
Subject / course
Biomedicine Targeting Physical Education
2012-05-14, 14:00 (English)
Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2014-05-28Bibliographically approved

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