Interaction between nerve fiber formation and astrocytes
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Parkinson’s disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder,is characterized by loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date,there is no defined cause and cure for the disease. An ideal treatmentstrategy is to replace the lost neurons by transplanting fetal dopaminergicneurons to the brain of parkinsonian patients. Clinical trials have beenperformed and the outcome was variable where one significant obstaclewas the limited graft reinnervation of the host brain. To study this issue,organotypic tissue culture can be utilized to monitor dopaminergic nervefiber outgrowth in vitro and their association with astrocytes. Using thisculture technique, dopaminergic nerve fibers appear in twomorphologically and temporally different types. The early appearing nervefibers are formed in the absence of astrocytes, reach long distances, andare called non-glial-associated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive nervefibers. After a few days, the second sequence of nerve fibers, the glialassociatedTH-positive nerve fibers, are formed, and their growth arelimited to the presence of astrocytes, that migrate and form a monolayersurrounding the plated tissue. The aim of this thesis was to study theinteraction between nerve fiber formation and astrocytes with a specialfocus on the long-distance growing nerve fibers. Ventral mesencephalic(VM) organotypic slice cultures from embryonic day (E) 12, E14, and E18were incubated for 14, 21, 28, and 35 days in vitro (DIV). The resultsrevealed that the two morphologically different processes were found incultures from the younger stages, while no non-glial-associated growthwas found in cultures of tissue from E18. Instead neurons had migratedonto the migrating astrocytes. Astrocytes migrated longer distances intissue from older stages, and the migration reached a plateau at 21 DIV.Co-cultures of E14 VM tissue pieces and cell suspension of matureastrocytes promoted migration of neurons, as seen in E18 cultures. Thus,9the maturity of the astrocytes was an important factor for nerve fiberoutgrowth. Hence, targeting molecules secreted by astrocytes might bebeneficial for regeneration. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), amember of proteoglycan family, is produced by the astrocytes and has adual role of being permissive during development and inhibitory afterbrain injury in adult brain. Cultures were treated with chondroitinase ABC(ChABC) or methyl-umbelliferyl-β-D-xyloside (β-xyloside) in twodifferent protocols, early and late treatments. The results from the earlytreated cultures showed that both compounds inhibited the outgrowth ofnerve fibers and astrocytic migration in cultures from E14 tissue, while β-xyloside but not ChABC promoted the non-glial-associated growth incultures derived from E18 fetuses. In addition, β-xyloside but not ChABCinhibited neuronal migration in E18 cultures. Taken together, β-xylosideappeared more effective than ChABC in promoting nerve fiber growth.Another potential candidate, integrin-associated protein CD47, was studiedbecause of its role in synaptogenesis, which is important for nerve fibergrowth. Cultures from E14 CD47 knockout (CD47-/-) mice were plated andcompared to their wildtypes. CD47-/- cultures displayed a massive and longnon-glial-associated TH-positive nerve fiber outgrowth despite theirnormal astrocytic migration. Blocking either signal regulatory protein-α(SIRPα) or thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which bind to CD47, had nogrowth promoting effect. In conclusion, to promote nerve growth, youngertissue can grow for longer distances than older tissue, and inhibiting CSPGproduction promotes nerve growth in older tissue, while gene deletion ofCD47 makes the astrocytes permissive for a robust nerve fiber growth.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2014. , 56 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1650
dopamine, nerve fiber outgrowth, astrocytes, ventral mesencephalon, spinal cord, CSPG, CD47
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88366ISBN: 978-91-7601-057-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-88366DiVA: diva2:715383
2014-05-28, BiA201, Biologihuset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Åkesson, Elisabet, Docent
Strömberg, Ingrid, Professor
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