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Train–Bridge Interaction: Literature Review and Parameter Screening
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2372-5234
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

New railway lines are continuously being constructed and existing lines are upgraded. Hence, there is a need for research directed towards efficient design of the supporting structures. Increasingly advanced calculation methods can be motivated, especially in projects where huge savings can be obtained from verifying that existing structures can safely support increased axle loads and higher speeds.

This thesis treats the dynamic response of bridges under freight and passenger train loads. The main focus is the idealisation of the train load and its implications for the evaluation of the vertical bridge deck acceleration. To ensure the running safety of train traffic at high speeds the European design codes set a limit on the vertical bridge deck acceleration. By considering the train–bridge interaction, that is, to model the train as rigid bodies on suspension units instead of constant moving forces, a reduction in bridge response can be obtained. The amount of reduction in bridge deck acceleration is typically between 5 and 20% for bridges with a span up to 30 m. The reduction can be higher for certain train–bridge systems and can be important also for bridge spans over 30 m. This thesis aims at clarifying for which system parameter combinations the effect of train–bridge interaction is important.

To this end, a thorough literature survey has been performed on studies in train–track–bridge dynamics. The governing parameters in 2D train–bridge systems have been further studied through a parameter screening procedure. The two-level factorial methodology was applied to study the effect of parameter variations as well as the joint effect from simultaneous changes in several parameters. The effect of the choice of load model was thus set in relation to the effect of other parameter variations.

The results show that resonance can arise from freight train traffic within realistic speed ranges (< 150 km/h). At these resonance peaks, the reduction in bridge response from a train–bridge interaction model can be considerable.

From the screening of key parameters it can furthermore be concluded that the amount of reduction obtained with a train–bridge interaction model depends on several system parameters, both for freight and passenger train loads. In line with the European design code’s guidelines for dynamic assessment of bridges under passenger trains an additional amount of damping can be introduced as a simplified way of taking into account the reduction from train–bridge interaction. The amount of additional damping is today given as function of solely the bridge span length, which is a rough simplification. The work presented in this thesis supports the need for a refined definition of the additional damping.

Abstract [sv]

Nya järnvägslinjer byggs kontinuerligt och befintliga linjer uppgraderas. Det finns därför ett behov av forskning inriktad på effektiv design av de bärande konstruktionerna. Alltmer avancerade beräkningsmetoder kan vara motiverade, särskilt i projekt där stora besparingar kan erhållas från att verifiera att befintliga konstruktioner kan bära ökade axellaster och högre hastigheter.

Föreliggande avhandling behandlar broars dynamiska respons under belastning av gods- och passagerartåg. Huvudfokus är att studera modelleringsalternativ för tåglasten och vilka konsekvenser de har för utvärderingen av brobanans vertikala acceleration. För att garantera trafiksäkerhet vid höga tåghastigheter definierar de europeiska normerna en maximalt tillåten vertikal acceleration i brobanan. Genom att beakta tåg-bro-interaktion, där tågkomponenterna modelleras som avfjädrade stela kroppar istället för konstanta punktlaster, kan en minskning av brons respons erhållas. Reduktionen av brobanans acceleration är typiskt mellan 5 och 20% för broar med en spännvidd på upp till 30 m. Minskningen kan vara högre för vissa tåg-brosystem och kan vara viktigt också för spännvidder över 30 m. Denna avhandling syftar till att klargöra för vilka kombinationer av tåg-broparametrar effekten av tåg-bro-interaktion är viktig.

I detta syfte har en omfattande litteraturstudie genomförts inom området tåg-spår-brodynamik. De styrande parametrarna i 2D tåg-brosystem har studerats vidare i en parameterstudie. Två-nivå faktorförsök har tillämpats för att studera effekten av parametervariationer samt den ytterligare effekten av samtidiga förändringar i flera parametrar. Effekten av valet av lastmodell sattes därmed i relation till effekten av andra parametervariationer.

Resultaten visar att resonans kan uppstå från godstrafik inom ett realistiskt hastighetsintervall (< 150 km/h). Vid dessa resonanstoppar kan en betydande minskning av broresponsen erhållas med en tåg-bro-interaktionsmodell.

Från studien av nyckelparametrar kan man vidare dra slutsatsen att reduktionen som erhålls med en tåg-bro-interaktionsmodell beror på flera systemparametrar, både för gods- och passargerartåg. Enligt de europeiska normernas rekommendationer för dynamisk kontroll av broar för passagerartrafik kan en ökad brodämpning introduceras som ett förenklat sätt att ta hänsyn till minskningen från tåg-bro-interaktion. Mängden tilläggsdämpning anges idag som en funktion av enbart brons spännvidd, vilket är en grov förenkling. Det arbete som presenteras i denna avhandling visar på behovet av en förbättrad definition av tilläggsdämpningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xii, 53 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 122
Keyword [en]
dynamics, vibration, railway bridge, bridge deck acceleration, moving load, train–bridge interaction, vehicle model
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144843OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-144843DiVA: diva2:714727
Presentation
2014-05-23, M108, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140429

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2014-04-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Train–bridge interaction: a review and discussion of key model parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Train–bridge interaction: a review and discussion of key model parameters
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Rail Transportation, ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 3, 147-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research in the field of train–bridge interaction is reviewed, with a particular focus on the vertical dynamic response of the bridge. The most influential system parameters are identified and discussed, providing a basis from which to establish an appropriate degree of complexity in train and track modelling. A two-level factorial experiment is presented. This is used to highlight the relative influence of train–bridge interaction in the train–bridge model, compared with variations in other key parameters. We distinguish those parameter combinations in the train–bridge system that lead to a significant reduction in bridge response due to the train–bridge interaction. The present survey fills an important gap in our existing knowledge by synthesising conclusions from the vast literature on train–bridge interaction. Moreover, the knowledge is related to the European design code’s guidelines for dynamic bridge analysis. The conclusions are summarised to give a rough guidance on modelling choices for train–bridge interaction systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keyword
dynamics, vibration, railway bridge, moving load, train–bridge interaction, vehicle
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144842 (URN)10.1080/23248378.2014.897790 (DOI)
Note

QPC 20160620

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2016-06-20Bibliographically approved
2. Statistical screening of modelling alternatives in train-bridge interaction systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical screening of modelling alternatives in train-bridge interaction systems
2014 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 59, 693-701 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of parameter variations in railway bridges subjected to train loads has been evaluated within the framework of a two-level factorial experiment. Especially, the influence of train-bridge interaction in comparison to other parameter variations is highlighted. Variations in the system parameters were introduced, corresponding to modelling alternatives considering reasonable uncertainties in a bridge design model. The dynamic effect from a passenger train set has been evaluated at, and away from, resonance in beam bridges of span lengths 6, 12, 24 and 36. m. By means of the two-level factorial design, effects from changes in a single parameter, as well as joint effects from simultaneous changes in several parameters, may be evaluated. The effect of including train-bridge interaction through a simple vehicle model as opposed to moving forces was found most distinct at resonance. The effect of the choice of load model was furthermore shown largest for the bridges of span length 24 and 36. m, where it was found more influential or comparable to the effect of other system parameter uncertainties. The high influence of the load model may well be attributed to the fact that the natural frequencies of the 24 and 36. m bridges are close to the vertical frequency of the primary suspension system of the train. The reduction of response obtained with the train-bridge interaction model are discussed in relation to bridge frequency rather than span length, and compared to the Additional Damping Method given in the European design code.

Keyword
Additional damping, Dynamic, Factorial experiment, Moving load, Railway bridge, Train-bridge interaction, Vibration
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140811 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.10.008 (DOI)000331920700060 ()2-s2.0-84890917842 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140204

Available from: 2014-02-04 Created: 2014-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Modelling Alternatives in the Dynamic Interaction of Freight Trains and Bridges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Alternatives in the Dynamic Interaction of Freight Trains and Bridges
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on studying the dynamic response of bridges under passing freight trains. To increase transport efficiency, infrastructure mangers are asked to allow for higher freight train speeds and higher axle loads. However, little work has been done on the influence of increased freight train speeds on bridges. In this paper a two-level factorial experiment was used to identify the most important factors in train-bridge interaction systems comprising the Swedish Steel Arrow freight train passing over simply supported beam bridges. Thereby, the effect of a simple 2D multibody model as opposed to moving forces was set in relation to variations in other key system parameters. Preceding the factorial experiment, four train models were compared to determine a relevant vehicle idealisation. Through the factorial design, effects of single parameters, as well as joint effects from simultaneous changes in several parameters, were evaluated. The type of load model was found to have a large effect, reducing the bridge deck response at resonance considerably for the four studied bridges of span 6, 12, 24 and 36 m. For the relatively light 24 and 36 m span bridges, clear resonance peaks from heavy freight train passages in the speed interval 50-150 km/h were much reduced.

Keyword
dynamic, vibration, railway bridge, moving load, train-bridge interaction, freight train, factorial experiment
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144309 (URN)10.4203/ccp.104.65 (DOI)1759-3433 (ISBN)
Conference
Second International Conference on Railway Technology, Railways 2014
Note

QC 20140429

Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2016-06-20Bibliographically approved

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