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Single limb exercises in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: feasibility, methodology, effects and evidence
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is a slowly progressive, inflammatory disease in the airways and lungs, caused mainly by smoking. The inflammation leads to a narrowing of the small airways (airway obstruction) and a destruction of tissue in the lungs. This gives a decreased expiratory airflow which leads to dyspnea, the primary symptom of the disease. The chronic airflow limitation also is associated with the development of limb muscle dysfunction. Decreases in both limb muscle strength and endurance have been shown which, in turn, is associated with exercise intolerance, one of the key disabling factors of the disease. Pulmonary rehabilitation including exercise training is the cornerstone of treatment and is strongly recommended. However, it is still unclear how to optimize exercise training for this group of patients. Also how to address the increase in dyspnea which limits the exercise stimulus, and how to assess muscular strength, need further study. Partitioning the exercising muscle mass, known as single limb exercises, is a novel exercise strategy aimed at reducing the negative consequences of chronic airflow limitation in patients with COPD.

The aim of this thesis was to study the current evidence of single limb approaches in patients with COPD, to examine the feasibility and effects of a high-repetitive single limb exercise (HRSLE) regimen in patients with COPD and to examine whether elastic resistance could be used to evaluate muscular strength.

This thesis is based on five papers. In order to study the evidence on single limb exercises, a systematic review of randomized controlled trials was performed. The review showed that single limb exercises, performed as one-legged cycling appeared to be more effective than two-legged cycling with regard to exercise capacity but not dyspnea, and might be included in exercise programs for patients with COPD (Paper I). Thirty healthy older women and men participated in a validation study comparing elastic resistance maximal strength with isokinetic dynamometry measurements. Excellent levels of agreement and no differences between the two pieces of equipment were found which indicates that elastic resistance could be used to evaluate muscular strength (Paper II). A study protocol was created for a randomized controlled trial designed to identify the effects of HRSLE in combination with COPD-specific patient training (experimental group) in comparison to patient information alone (control group) (Paper III). HRSLE was performed as resistance training, using a single limb at a time, elastic bands as resistance and a high number of repetitions (25 repetitions in 2 sets) with the aim of increasing limb muscle endurance. After eight weeks of exercise, the differences between the groups were in favor of the experimental group on lower- and upper-extremity functional capacity, upper-extremity endurance capacity and muscular function. No differences were seen between the groups on endurance-cycle capacity or health-related quality of life (Paper IV). In patients with COPD, the HRSLE regimen was considered feasible with a high attendance rate, excellent compliance and high relative exercise intensity. No severe adverse events occurred. The physiotherapists conducting the HRSLE in the clinical setting also found it to be feasible (Paper V).

This thesis shows that single limb exercises performed as one-legged cycling may be useful and effective for patients with COPD. Eight weeks of HRSLE was feasible and effective with regard to exercise capacity but without effect with regard to health-related quality of life. Elastic resistance could be used as exercise equipment to improve limb muscle function in patients with COPD and to evaluate muscular strength in healthy older adults.

Abstract [sv]

Kroniskt obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL) är idag ett stort globalt problem.  KOL är en långsamt fortskridande inflammatorisk sjukdom i luftvägar och lungor, i huvudsak orsakad av cigarrettrökning. Inflammationen leder till en förträngning i de små luftvägarna och förstör vävnaden i lungorna. Detta medför en luftvägsobstruktion där flödet av luft vid utandning är minskat, vilket bidrar till varierande grad av andnöd hos patienten. Luftvägsobstruktionen är relaterad till försämrad muskelfunktion hos patientgruppen. Både nedsatt muskulär styrka och uthållighet har påvisats vilket är relaterat till ett av huvudproblemen vid KOL; nedsatt förmåga till fysisk aktivitet och träning.  Lungrehabilitering inklusive fysisk träning är centralt i behandlingen och starkt rekommenderat. Det är dock inte fastställt hur patientgruppen skall träna för att optimera effekterna av träningen eller hur träningen bäst kan utvärderas. Det är också oklart hur man skall hantera den successivt ökande andfåddheten vid träning. Träning med en arm eller ett ben i taget, så kallad lokal muskelträning är en strategi som syftar till att minska andnöd under träning hos patienter med KOL

Syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka vilken evidens det finns för lokal muskelträning hos patienter med KOL, utvärdera genomförbarhet och effekter av lokal högrepetitiv muskelträning utfört med elastiska träningsband hos patienter med KOL samt att undersöka ifall elastiska träningsband kan användas för att utvärdera muskelstyrka.

Avhandlingen består av fem delstudier. För att undersöka evidens för lokal muskelträning genomfördes en systematisk litteraturgranskning av randomiserade kontrollerade studier. Granskningen visade att lokal muskelträning, i form av cykling med ett ben i taget kan vara effektivt, avseende fysisk förmåga, men utan effekt avseende andfåddhet för patienter med KOL (delstudie 1). Trettio friska kvinnor och män, deltog i en valideringsstudie där jämförelser gjordes mellan maximal kraftutveckling utfört med elastiska träningsband och en isokinetisk dynamometer. Ett högt samband mellan de två metoderna och ingen skillnad i maximal kraft, indikerade att elastiska band kan användas för att utvärdera muskelstyrka (delstudie 2). Ett studieprotokoll skapades för en randomiserad kontrollerad studie, som syftade till att undersöka effekterna av lokal högrepetitiv muskelträning i kombination med KOL-specifik patientutbildning (interventionsgrupp) jämfört med enbart KOL-specifik patientutbildning (kontrollgrupp) (delstudie 3). Lokal högrepetitiv muskelträning utfördes i grupp med elastiska träningsband som redskap. Övningarna genomfördes med en arm eller ett ben i taget med 25 repetitioner i 2 set med syfte att påverka muskulaturens uthållighet. Efter åtta veckors träning hade interventionsgruppen bättre muskelfunktion i både övre och nedre extremitet samt en bättre funktionell förmåga jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Inga skillnader i effekt sågs mellan grupperna avseende uthållighet vid test på ergometercykel eller avseende hälsorelaterade utfallsmått, såsom livskvalitet och tilltro till sin egen förmåga (delstudie 4). För patienter med KOL, visade sig lokal högrepetitiv muskelträning vara en genomförbar metod avseende följsamhet och närvaro i träningen. De fysioterapeuter som ledde träningen i klinisk verksamhet ansåg att den var möjlig att genomföra med hög relativ intensitet och utan allvarliga biverkningar (delstudie 5).

Sammanfattningsvis visar denna avhandling att lokal muskelträning kan vara en användbar och effektiv metod för patienter med KOL. Åtta veckor med lokal högrepetitiv muskelträning är genomförbart och effektivt avseende fysisk förmåga hos dessa patienter. Elastiska träningsband kan användas som träningsredskap för att förbättra muskelfunktion hos patienter med KOL samt för att utvärdera muskelstyrka hos friska vuxna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2014. , 72 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1645
Keyword [en]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, elastic resistance, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, randomized controlled design, single limb exercises, systematic review, study protocol
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88024ISBN: 978-91-7601-049-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-88024DiVA: diva2:714645
Public defence
2014-05-23, Aulan, Vårdetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-22 Last updated: 2014-06-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evidence for single-limb exercises on exercise capacity, quality of life, and dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic heart failure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence for single-limb exercises on exercise capacity, quality of life, and dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic heart failure
2013 (English)In: Physical Therapy Reviews, ISSN 1083-3196, E-ISSN 1743-288X, Vol. 18, no 3, 157-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Although single-limb exercise (SLE) has been used for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the evidence for SLE has not been evaluated systematically and remains unclear.

Objectives: Determine the evidence for the effect of SLE compared to any comparator on outcome measurements for exercise capacity, quality of life (QoL) or dyspnea in patients with COPD or CHF.

Methods: PubMed, PEDro, and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception until 31 May 2011. Searches started 1 April 2011. English language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Extraction of data was performed by two review authors. Data and evidence for SLE were summarized in accordance with grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Authors of included studies were contacted for missing data.

Results: Six RCTs (two COPD and four CHF) were included. Low to very low-quality evidence indicates that SLE significantly improved exercise capacity, but not dyspnea, in patients with COPD, and significantly improved exercise capacity outcomes compared to a control in patients with CHF. However, when SLE was compared to non-SLE regimes in patients with CHF, positive effects were found irrespective of training regime regarding exercise capacity and QoL.

Conclusions: SLE appears to be effective in both conditions especially regarding exercise capacity, and might be included in exercise programs in patients with COPD or CHF. However, the evidence is low to very low according to GRADE and more clinical studies of high quality are required.

Keyword
Chronic heart failure; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Evidence; GRADE; Single limb exercises
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80246 (URN)10.1179/1743288X13Y.0000000072 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. The accuracy of using elastic resistance bands to evaluate muscular strength
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The accuracy of using elastic resistance bands to evaluate muscular strength
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, European Journal of Physiotherapy, Vol. 16, no 2, 104-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Elastic resistance as a tool for evaluation of muscular strength has rarely been addressed even though it is commonly used in exercise and rehabilitation regimens involving the shoulder muscles. The aim was therefore to investigate the relationship and potential difference between development of force during maximal isokinetic (maximum peak force, maximum mean force and peak mean force) and elastic (one-repetition maximum (1 RM)) concentric shoulder fl exion in healthy older adults. A total of 30 voluntary adults over the age of 50 (15 women, 15 men) were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient absolute agreement was 0.85, 0.43 and 0.48 for the isokinetic values respectively, when all subjects were analysed together. No difference was found between the isokinetic maximum peak force value and the elastic 1 RM for all participants (0.15 kg, p 0.791), for men (0.80 kg, p 0.121) or women ( 0.49 kg, p 0.135). Variations at an individual level, i.e. 95% limits of agreement, were 3.3 kg for all participants, 2.8 kg for women and 3.2 kg for men. These results imply that elastic resistance could be used to evaluate shoulder fl exion strength in both older men and women. However, thevariation on an individual level and the lower agreement among women is important to consider.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2014
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87826 (URN)10.3109/21679169.2014.889746 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-04-13 Created: 2014-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Assessing the effect of high-repetitive single limb exercises (HRSLE) on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the effect of high-repetitive single limb exercises (HRSLE) on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial
2012 (English)In: TRIALS, ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 13, 114- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Single-limb knee extension exercises have been found to be effective at improving lower extremity exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since the positive local physiological effects of exercise training only occur in the engaged muscle(s), should upper extremity muscles also be included to determine the effect of single limb exercises in COPD patients. Methods/design: Trial design: a prospective, assessor-blind, block randomized controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial. Participants: stage II-IV COPD patients, > 40 years of age, ex-smokers, with stable medical treatment will be included starting May 2011. Recruitment at three locations in Sweden. Interventions: 1) high-repetitive single limb exercise (HRSLE) training with elastic bands, 60 minutes, three times/week for 8 weeks combined with four sessions of 60 minutes patient education, or 2) the same patient education alone. Outcomes: Primary: determine the effects of HRSLE on local muscle endurance capacity (measured as meters walked during 6-minute walk test and rings moved on 6-minute ring and pegboard test) and quality of life (measured as change on the Swedish version of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire). Secondary: effects on maximal strength, muscular endurance, dyspnea, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression. The relationship between changes in health-related variables and changes in exercise capacity, sex-related differences in training effects, feasibility of the program, strategies to determine adequate starting resistance and provide accurate resistance for each involved movement and the relationship between muscle fatigue and dyspnea in the different exercise tests will also be analyzed. Randomization: performed by a person independent of the recruitment process and using a computer random number generator. Stratification by center and gender with a 1: 1 allocation to the intervention or control using random block sizes. Blinding: all outcome assessors will be blinded to group assignment. Discussion: The results of this project will contribute to increase the body of knowledge regarding COPD and HRSLE.

Keyword
COPD; dyspnea; elastic resistance; exercise capacity; multicenter; quality of life; randomized controlled trial; single limb training
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60658 (URN)10.1186/1745-6215-13-114 (DOI)000308893200001 ()
Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2014-04-29Bibliographically approved
4. Low-load/high-repetition elastic band resistance training in patients with COPD: a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-load/high-repetition elastic band resistance training in patients with COPD: a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial
2015 (English)In: Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 1752-6981, E-ISSN 1752-699X, Vol. 9, no 3, 278-288 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: High-repetitive resistance training is recommended to increase peripheral muscular endurance in healthy adults, however the effects of resistance training with this design on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown.

Objective: Investigate if low load / high repetition elastic band resistance training (RT) could improve functional capacity, muscular function, endurance cycle capacity or HRQOL in patients with COPD.

Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled multicentre trial was constructed with concealed allocation, blinded outcome assessment, and intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 44 patients with moderate to very severe COPD (FEV1 44.6% predicted) were included. Patients were randomized to either the experimental group receiving eight weeks of RT (3 sessions/week) in combination with patient education (four occasions) or the control group receiving the patient education alone.

Results: At post-tests, the between-group differences were in favor of the experimental group on the 6 minute walk test (mean difference (95% confidence interval)): 34 meters (14 to 54) and the 6 minute pegboard and ring test (20 rings (3 to 37). No difference between groups was found on the chronic respiratory disease questionnaire (0.1 (-0.2 to 0.4). On secondary outcomes, results were in favor of the experimental group regarding upper extremity endurance capacity, muscular function and depression but no difference was seen between groups on endurance cycle capacity and HRQOL.

Conclusion: RT can increase functional capacity and muscular function but not cycle endurance capacity and HRQOL in patients with moderate to severe COPD

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keyword
Exercise, Lower Extremity, Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Quality of Life, Resistance Training, Upper Extremity, Single limb
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87856 (URN)10.1111/crj.12141 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-04-13 Created: 2014-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. A Cohort Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Low Load/High Repetition Elastic Band Resistance Training for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cohort Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Low Load/High Repetition Elastic Band Resistance Training for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
2014 (English)In: Journal of Novel Physiotherapies, ISSN 2165-7025, Vol. 4, 190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Resistance training is an important component of pulmonary rehabilitation in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). A vast majority or resistance training studies in COPD have focused on increasing muscular strength with use of weight machines and has been found to be a feasible approach in COPD. However, regarding feasibility of resistance training equipment other than weight machines, such as elastic resistance equipment, information is scarce. In addition, little is known regarding other trainable muscle characteristics, such as peripheral muscular endurance in COPD. We therefore aim to evaluate the feasibility of a low load/high repetition elastic band Resistance Training (RT) regimen in people with moderate to severe COPD. We also aim to evaluate if the RT regimen is feasible for the physiotherapists, conducting the intervention.

Methods: Twenty-two participants with moderate to severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1 58.7% predicted) and five physiotherapists participated in the study. Measurements of attendance, assessment and progression of exercise intensity, adverse events, participant and compliance (participant and physiotherapist) were collected for assessment of feasibility.

Results: The mean (95% confidence interval) attendance rate was 94% (91-97) and mean exercise intensity was 79% (74-83) of the predicted maximum intensity. Furthermore, the median (interquartile range) compliance was 96% (94-96) and 100% (94-100) for the people with COPD and the physiotherapists respectively. Exercise intensity increased on all exercises and any recorded adverse events were considered minor and temporary.

Conclusions: Low load/high repetition elastic band resistance training appears to be feasible for both people with COPD and the physiotherapists performing the intervention. These results indicate that elastic bands could be a feasible alternative to weight machines in resistance training for people with COPD.

National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87859 (URN)10.4172/2165-7025.1000190 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-04-13 Created: 2014-04-13 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved

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