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Improved inspection and micrometrology of embedded structures in multi-layered ceramics: Development of optical coherence tomographic methods and tools
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics. (Industrial Metrology and Optics)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0776-3716
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Roll-to-roll manufacturing of micro components based on advanced printing, structuring and lamination of ceramic tapes is rapidly progressing. This large-scale and cost-effective manufacturing process of ceramic micro devices is however prone to hide defects within the visually opaque tape stacks. To achieve a sustainable manufacturing with zero defects in the future, there is an urgent need for reliable inspection systems. The systems to be developed have to perform high-resolution in-process quality control at high speed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising technology for detailed in-depth inspection and metrology. Combined with infrared screening of larger areas it can solve the inspection demands in the roll-to-roll ceramic tape processes. In this thesis state-of-art commercial and laboratory OCT systems, operating at the central wavelength of 1.3 µm and 1.7 µm respectively, are evaluated for detecting microchannels, metal prints, defects and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometers beneath surfaces.

The effect of surface roughness induced scattering and scattering by pores on the probing radiation, is analyzed by experimentally captured and theoretically simulated OCT images of the ceramic samples, while varying surface roughnesses and operating wavelengths. By extending the Monte Carlo simulations of the OCT response to the mid-infrared the optimal operating wavelength is found to be 4 µm for alumina and 2 µm for zirconia. At these wavelengths we predict a sufficient probing depth of about 1 mm and we demonstrate and discuss the effect of rough surfaces on the detectability of embedded boundaries.

For high-precision measurement a new and automated 3D image processing algorithm for analysis of volumetric OCT data is developed. We show its capability by measuring the geometric dimensions of embedded structures in ceramic layers, extracting features with irregular shapes and detecting geometric deformations. The method demonstrates its suitability for industrial applications by rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness.

The new inspection methods we demonstrate are finally analyzed in the context of measurement uncertainty, both in the axial and lateral cases, and reveal that scattering in the sample indeed affects the lateral measurement uncertainty. Two types of image artefacts are found to be present in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighboring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index. A wavefront aberration is found in the OCT system with a scanning scheme of two galvo mirrors, and it can be corrected using our image processing algorithm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xi, 134 p.
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 14:01
Keyword [en]
Metrology, Optical Coherence Tomography, Ceramics, Embedded Structure, Multilayer, Nondestructive Testing, Optical Inspection, Critical Dimension Measurement, Infrared Imaging, Scattering, Mie Calculation, Image Processing, Monte Carlo Simulation
Keyword [zh]
测量学, 光学相干断层扫描术,陶瓷,嵌入式结构,多层,无损检测,光学检测,关键尺寸测量,红外成像,散射,Mie计算,图像处理,Monte Carlo模拟
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144595ISBN: 978-91-7595-090-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-144595DiVA: diva2:714267
Public defence
2014-05-16, Brinellsalen, M311, Brinellvägen 68, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Multilayer (FP7-NMP4-2007-214122)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production researchEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-NMP4-2007-214122
Note

QC 20140428

Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-25 Last updated: 2015-01-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Optical coherence tomography: a potential tool for roughness assessment of free and embedded surfaces of laser-machined alumina ceramic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical coherence tomography: a potential tool for roughness assessment of free and embedded surfaces of laser-machined alumina ceramic
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2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Heinz Kuck, Holger Reinecke and Stefan Dimov, Singapore: Research Publishing , 2011, 140-144 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For an emerging market a mass and cost-effective production of non-silicon micro devices requires an in-process and accurate 3D monitoring to assure the quality. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) providing high-resolution contactless imaging is used to inspect the surface quality of a laser-machined alumina ceramic layer. Quantitatively the root mean square (rms) roughness is measured by traditional means and provides input parameters to theMonte Carlosimulation of OCT method. We found that the quality of both free and embedded surfaces of the highly-scattering alumina ceramic material can be evaluated by OCT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Research Publishing, 2011
Keyword
Alumina ceramics, optical coherence tomography (OCT), light scattering, surface roughness, Monte Carlo method, laser machining
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48468 (URN)10.3850/978-981-07-0319-6_247 (DOI)000307677000030 ()978-981-07-0319-6 (ISBN)
Conference
4M 2011 conference
Projects
Multilayer project (FP7-NMP4-2007-214122)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-NMP4-2007-214122XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20111221

Available from: 2011-12-21 Created: 2011-11-18 Last updated: 2014-04-28Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of optical inspection methods for non-destructive assessment of embedded microstructures and defects in ceramic materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of optical inspection methods for non-destructive assessment of embedded microstructures and defects in ceramic materials
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Humbert Noll, Nadja Adamovic and Stefan Dimov, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2012, 109-112 p.Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The future ceramic micro processing based on tape stacking requires the development of inspection systems toperform high-resolution in-process quality control of embedded manufactured cavities, metal structures anddefects. This paper presents non-destructive techniques for monitoring processes and controlling the differentsteering parameters. Results are shown for optical coherence tomography (OCT), IR-transmission and reflectionmeasurement, and X-ray micro computed tomography. Suitable working conditions are analyzed to improve thedetection performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2012
Keyword
Ceramic processing, Non-destructive testing (NDT), Optical inspection, Micrometrology
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116467 (URN)978-98107-3353-7 (ISBN)981-07-3353-4 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on 4M 2012 Multi-Material Micro Manufacture,
Projects
Multilayer project (FP7-NMP4-2007-214122)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production researchEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, NMP2-LA-2008- 214122
Note

Qc 20130204

Available from: 2013-02-04 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2014-04-28Bibliographically approved
3. Optical coherence tomography for quality assessment of embedded microchannels in alumina ceramic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical coherence tomography for quality assessment of embedded microchannels in alumina ceramic
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2012 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 4, 4603-4618 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large-scale and cost-effective manufacturing of ceramic micro devices based on tape stacking requires the development of inspection systems to perform high-resolution in-process quality control of embedded manufactured cavities, metal structures and defects. With an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system operating at 1.3 mu m and a dedicated automated line segmentation algorithm, layer thicknesses can be measured and laser-machined channels can be verified in alumina ceramics embedded at around 100 mu m depth. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to analyze the abilities of OCT in imaging of the embedded channels. The light scattering parameters required as input data for simulations are evaluated from the integrating sphere measurements of collimated and diffuse transmittance spectra using a reconstruction algorithm based on refined diffusion approximation approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2012
Keyword
Optical coherence tomography, Nondestructive testing, Imaging through turbid media, Scattering, Image processing, Numerical approximation and analysis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-85514 (URN)10.1364/OE.20.004603 (DOI)000301041900124 ()2-s2.0-84857331392 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Multilayer project (FP7-NMP4-2007-214122)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-NMP4-2007-214122XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20120221

Available from: 2012-02-21 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Enhancement of probing depth and measurement accuracy of optical coherence tomography for metrology of multi-layered ceramics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancement of probing depth and measurement accuracy of optical coherence tomography for metrology of multi-layered ceramics
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2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Light scattering strongly limits the probing depth and speckles degrade the image quality in optical coherence tomography (OCT) detection of embedded features in high-scattering ceramics. For high-precision metrology application we evaluated an OCT system working at a centre wavelength of 1.7μm in order to improve the probing depth, and developed a dedicated image processing algorithm for improving the measurement accuracy and speed. The results are demonstrated for 3D OCT measurement of embedded laser-machined pattern in ceramics.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133680 (URN)
Conference
1st International Symposium on Optical Coherence Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing,13.-14.02.2013, Linz, Austria
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-NMP4-2007-214122XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20131217

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-11-08 Last updated: 2014-04-28Bibliographically approved
5. Monte Carlo simulation in optical coherence tomography for quality inspection of materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monte Carlo simulation in optical coherence tomography for quality inspection of materials
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2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Quality inspection of materials is one of modern applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) featuring non-invasiveness and high speed required for in-production control of such materials as paper and alumina ceramics. Some of materials to be controlled are characterized by high scattering which can introduce distortions to the obtained OCT images, therefore additional interpretation can be required in order to evaluate material quality. In order to understand formation of OCT images of highly scattering materials samples and evaluate OCT potential for their quality inspection Monte Carlo simulations could be employed. This paper discusses application of Monte Carlo technique for simulation of OCT inspection of paper and alumina ceramics samples. Implementation of Monte Carlo simulation allows to evaluate the effect of OCT setup parameters and material properties on formation of the OCT-images. Multilayer models of paper and alumina ceramics structures are involved in the study.

Keyword
OCT, Monte Carlo simulations, paper, alumina ceramics
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133699 (URN)
Conference
1st International Symposium on Optical Coherence Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing,13.-14.02.2013, Linz, Austria
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-NMP4-2007-214122XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20131128

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-11-08 Last updated: 2014-04-28Bibliographically approved
6. Perspectives of mid-infrared optical coherence tomography for inspection and micrometrology of industrial ceramics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives of mid-infrared optical coherence tomography for inspection and micrometrology of industrial ceramics
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 13, 15804-15819 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for detecting micro channels, metal prints, defects and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometers beneath surfaces. The effect of surface roughness and scattering of probing radiation within sample on OCT inspection is analyzed from the experimental and simulated OCT images of the ceramic samples with varying surface roughnesses and operating wavelengths. By Monte Carlo simulations of the OCT images in the mid-IR the optimal operating wavelength is found to be 4 mu m for the alumina samples and 2 mu m for the zirconia samples for achieving sufficient probing depth of about 1 mm. The effects of rough surfaces and dispersion on the detection of the embedded boundaries are discussed. Two types of image artefacts are found in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighboring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index.

Keyword
Optical coherence tomography, Numerical approximation and analysis, Nondestructive testing, Optical inspection, Surface measurements, roughness, Imaging through turbid media, Infrared imaging, Scattering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144593 (URN)10.1364/OE.22.015804 (DOI)000338055900065 ()2-s2.0-84903729685 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Multilayer (FP7-NMP4-2007-214122)National Institute of Health (P41EB015903)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production researchEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-NMP4-2007-214122
Note

QC 20140807. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2014-04-25 Created: 2014-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
7. Fast and accurate metrology of multi-layered ceramic materials by an automated boundary detection algorithm developed for optical coherence tomography data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast and accurate metrology of multi-layered ceramic materials by an automated boundary detection algorithm developed for optical coherence tomography data
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Optical Society of America. Journal A: Optics, Image Science, and Vision, ISSN 1084-7529, E-ISSN 1520-8532, Vol. 31, no 2, 217-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 mu m when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness.

Keyword
Segmentation
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142881 (URN)10.1364/JOSAA.31.000217 (DOI)000331070600001 ()2-s2.0-84898064809 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-NMP4-2007-214122
Note

QC 20140314

Available from: 2014-03-14 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
8. Accurate and automated image segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography data suffering from low signal-to-noise levels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accurate and automated image segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography data suffering from low signal-to-noise levels
2014 (English)In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 31, no 12, 2551-2560 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be a useful tool for investigating internal structures in ceramic tapes, and the technique is expected to be important for roll-to-roll manufacturing. However, because of high scattering in ceramic materials, noise and speckles deteriorate the image quality, which makes automated quantitative measurements of internal interfaces difficult. To overcome this difficulty we present in this paper an innovative image analysis approach based on volumetric OCT data. The engine in the analysis is a 3D image processing and analysis algorithm. It is dedicated to boundary segmentation and dimensional measurement in volumetric OCT images, and offers high accuracy, efficiency, robustness, subpixel resolution, and a fully automated operation. The method relies on the correlation property of a physical interface and effectively eliminates pixels caused by noise and speckles. The remaining pixels being stored are the ones confirmed to be related to the target interfaces. Segmentation of tilted and curved internal interfaces separated by similar to 10 mu m in the Z direction is demonstrated. The algorithm also extracts full-field top-view intensity maps of the target interfaces for high-accuracy measurements in the X and Y directions. The methodology developed here may also be adopted in other similar 3D imaging and measurement technologies, e.g., ultrasound imaging, and for various materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2014
Keyword
Three-dimensional image processing, Tomographic image processing, Noise in imaging systems, Optical coherence tomography, Optical inspection, Industrial optical metrology
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155763 (URN)10.1364/JOSAA.31.002551 (DOI)000345902400007 ()2-s2.0-84942372053 (Scopus ID)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20141119

Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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