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Climate change frames and frame formation: An analysis of climate change communication in the Swedish agricultural sector
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While previous research into understandings of climate change has usually examined general public perceptions and mainstream media representations, this thesis offers an audience-specific departure point by analysing climate change frames and frame formation in Swedish agriculture. The empirical material consists of Swedish farm magazines’ reporting on climate change, as well as eight focus group discussions among Swedish farmers on the topic of climate change and climate change information. The analysis demonstrates that while Swedish farm magazines frame climate change in terms of conflict, scientific uncertainty, and economic burden, farmers in the focus groups tended to concentrate on whether climate change was a natural or human-induced phenomenon, and viewed climate change communication as an issue of credibility. It was found that farm magazines use metaphorical representations of war and games to form the overall frames of climate change. In contrast, the farmers’  frames of natural versus human-induced climate change were formed primarily using experience-based and non-experience-based arguments, both supported with analogies, distinctions, keywords, metaphors, and prototypical examples. Furthermore, discussions of what constitutes credible climate information centred on conflict-versus consensus-oriented frames of climate change communication along with different views of the extent to which knowledge of climate change is and should be practically or analytically based. This analysis of climate change communication in the Swedish agricultural sector proposes that the sense-making processes of climate change are complex, involving associative thinking and experience-based knowledge that form interpretations of climate change and climate change information.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen studerar uppfattningar om klimatförändringar och bidrar med sin målgruppsorienterade utgångspunkt till tidigare forskning kring hur klimatförändringar kan förstås och uppfattas. Avhandlingen studerar klimatkommunikation inom den svenska lantbrukssektorn genom analyser av 10 års klimatrapportering i tidningarna ATL samt Land Lantbruk, samt åtta fokusgruppsdiskussioner med svenska lantbrukare. Analysen visar att medan svensk lantbruksmedia ramade in klimatförändringar som en fråga om konflikter, vetenskaplig osäkerhet och ekonomisk börda, rörde lantbrukarnas diskussioner om klimatförändringar (i) dess orsaker; naturliga eller antropogena, (ii) olika faktorer som påverkar huruvida klimatinformation anses trovärdig. Därtill visar avhandlingen att lantbrukstidningar använde krigs- och spelmetaforer för att gestalta klimatförändringar medan lantbrukarna formade klimatinramningar genom analogier, distinktioner, nyckelord, metaforer och prototypiska exempel. Tillsammans med lantbrukarnas upplevda erfarenheter bildade dessa kommunikativa verktyg olika gestaltningar av klimatförändringar. Lantbrukarna visade på olika uppfattningar kring trovärdighet och klimatinformation. Vanligen efterfrågades ett informationslandskap karaktäriserat av en mångfald av perspektiv. Återkommande i materialet var också uppfattningen att kunskap om klimatförändringar borde vara praktiskt baserad snarare än teoretisk hållen för att öka i trovärdighet. Denna avhandling kring klimatkommunikation inom den svenska lantbrukssektorn pekar på komplexiteten i tolkningsprocesser och visar att associativt tänkande och erfarenhetsbaserad kunskap tillsammans utgör grunden för hur klimatförändringar och klimatinformation uppfattas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 84 + Appendicies A and B p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 619
Keyword [en]
Climate change communication, frame analysis, Swedish agriculture, farm magazines, focus groups
Keyword [sv]
Klimatförändringar, kommunikation, frame analys, Svenskt lantbruk, lantbrukstidningar, fokusgrupper
National Category
Environmental Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Media and Communications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105997DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-105997ISBN: 978-91-7519-320-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-105997DiVA: diva2:712700
Public defence
2014-05-23, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Framings and coverage of climate change in Swedish specialized farming magazines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framings and coverage of climate change in Swedish specialized farming magazines
2013 (English)In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 117, no 1-2, 197-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change is a fundamental challenge for which agriculture is sensitive and   vulnerable. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified relevant information as key to enabling appropriate climate adaptation and mitigation action. Information specifically directed to farmers can be found, for example, in specialized farming magazines.

While recent studies examine how national news media frame climate change, less —if any —studies have addressed climate framings and coverage in specialized media. Media framings are storylines that provide meaning by communicating how and why an issue should be seen as a problem, how it should be handled, and who is responsible for it. This paper analyses the framings and coverage of climate change in two Swedish specialized farming magazines from 2000 to 2009. It examines the extent of the climate change coverage, the content of the media items, and the dominant framings underlying their climate change coverage. The study identifies: increased coverage of climate change starting in 2007; frequent coverage of agriculture 's contribution to climate change, climate change impacts on agriculture, and consequences of climate politics for agriculture; and four prominent frames: conflict, scientific certainty, economic burden, and action. The paper concludes that climate change communicators addressing farmers and agricultural extension officers should pay attention to how these frames may be interpreted by different target audiences. Research is needed on how specialized media reports on climate-related issues and how science-based climate information is understood  by different groups of farmers and which other factors influence farmers’ engagement in climate mitigation and adaptation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013
Keyword
climate change, media representation, media frames, farming magazines, communication; specialized media
National Category
Media Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80851 (URN)10.1007/s10584-012-0535-0 (DOI)000316128700014 ()
Projects
Ett konkurrenskraftigt jordbruk-kommunikation kring klimatförändringar och nya möjligheter (SLF)Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change (BalticClimate)
Available from: 2012-08-31 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-07
2. Metaphors in climate discourse: an analysis of Swedish farm magazines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metaphors in climate discourse: an analysis of Swedish farm magazines
2011 (English)In: JCOM - Journal of Science Communication, ISSN 1824-2049, E-ISSN 1824-2049, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines communicative aspects of climate change, identifying and analysing metaphors used in specialized media reports on climate change, and discussing the aspects of climate change these metaphors emphasize and neglect. Through a critical discourse analysis of the two largest Swedish farm magazines over the 2000–2009 period, this study finds that greenhouse, war, and game metaphors were the most frequently used metaphors in the material. The analysis indicates that greenhouse metaphors are used to ascribe certain natural science characteristics to climate change, game metaphors to address positive impacts of climate change, and war metaphors to highlight negative impacts of climate change. The paper concludes by discussing the contrasting and complementary metaphorical representations farm magazines use to conventionalize climate change.

Keyword
climate change, media, metaphors, farm magazine, climate change communication
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71870 (URN)
Projects
Grant from the Swedish Farmers’ Foundation for Agricultural Research as part of the research program “Competitively strengthened agriculture: communication about climate change and new possibilities”.
Available from: 2011-11-08 Created: 2011-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
3. “Do you believe in climate change?” Swedish farmers’ joint construction of climate perceptions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Do you believe in climate change?” Swedish farmers’ joint construction of climate perceptions
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Climate change has shifted from being regarded as an exclusively physical phenomenon to being a social phenomenon as well, entailing many interpretations and multidimensional frames. This shift calls for an understanding of how various audiences and segments of the public understand climate change. This paper analyses how Swedish farmers perceive climate change and how they jointly shape and construct their understandings. The agricultural sector is of special interest because it both contributes to and is directly affected by climate change impact. Through focus group discussions with Swedish farmers, this study finds that: 1) farmers relate to and understand climate change through their own experience, and 2) climate change is understood either as a natural process subject to little or no human influence or as anthropogenic. The article ends by discussing frame resonance and frame clash in public understandings of climate change, and by comparing potential similarities and differences in how various segments of the public make sense of climate change.

Keyword
Agriculture, climate change communication, climate perceptions, focus groups, frame analysis
National Category
Media Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105995 (URN)
Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2014-04-16Bibliographically approved
4. Credibility in Climate Change Communication: Swedish Farmers’ Perceptions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Credibility in Climate Change Communication: Swedish Farmers’ Perceptions
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the climate change communication literature, the concept of framing is increasingly used to discuss various understandings of climate change. This paper addresses the under-researched question of how specific audiences perceive the adequacy of various climate change frames, by exploring how Swedish farmers make sense of climate change information. Based on focus group discussions with farmers, the paper explores what communicators, or frame articulators, Swedish farmers perceive as central and how farmers judge the credibility of potential frame articulators in climate change communication. The paper discusses 1) the credibility of frame articulators as a matter of perceived independence and impartiality, 2) empirical credibility—whether farmers were able to verify the claims underlying climate change frames—as a matter of practical experience versus analytical reasoning, and 3) frame consistency, i.e. whether climate change frames correspond to audience beliefs and claims.

Keyword
Climate Change Communication; Frame Analysis; Frame Credibility; Agriculture; Focus Groups
National Category
Media Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105996 (URN)
Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved

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