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Effective development of haptic devices using a model-based and simulation-driven design approach
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Virtual reality (VR)-based surgical simulators using haptic devices can increase the effectiveness of surgical training for surgeons when performing surgical procedures in hard tissues such as bones or teeth milling. The realism of virtual surgery through a surgical simulator depends largely on the precision and reliability of the haptic device, which reflects the interaction with the virtual model. The quality of perceptiveness (sensation, force/torque) depends on the design of the haptic device, which presents a complex design space due to its multi-criteria and conflicting character of functional and performance requirements. These requirements include high stiffness, large workspace, high manipulability, small inertia, low friction, high transparency, and cost constraints.

This thesis proposes a design methodology to improve the realism of force/torque feedback from the VR-based surgical simulator while fulfilling end-user requirements.

The main contributions of this thesis are:

1. The development of a model-based and simulation-driven design methodology, where one starts from an abstract, top-level model that is extended via stepwise refinements and design space exploration into a detailed and integrated systems model that can be physically realized.

2. A methodology for creating an analytical and compact model of the quasi-static stiffness of a haptic device, which considers the stiffness of actuation systems, flexible links and passive joints.

3. A robust design optimization approach to find the optimal numerical values for a set of design parameters to maximize the kinematic, dynamic and kinetostatic performances of a 6-degrees of freedom (DOF) haptic device, while minimizing its sensitivity to variations in manufacturing tolerances and cost, and also satisfying the allowed variations in the performance indices.

4. A cost-effective approach for force/torque feedback control using force/torque estimated through a recursive least squares estimation.

5. A model-based control strategy to increase transparency and fidelity of force/torque feedback from the device by compensating for the natural dynamics of the device, friction in joints, gravity of platform, and elastic deformations.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xiii, 55 p.
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2014:02
Keyword [en]
Haptic device, model-based design, design optimization
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144216ISBN: 978-91-7595-063-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-144216DiVA: diva2:712435
Public defence
2014-04-23, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140415

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-04-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A model-based and simulation-driven methodology for design of haptic devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model-based and simulation-driven methodology for design of haptic devices
2014 (English)In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 24, no 7, 805-818 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High precision and reliable haptic devices are highly complex products. The complexity that has to be carefully treated in the design process is largely due to the multi-criteria and conflicting character of the functional and performance requirements. These requirements include high stiffness, large work-space, high manipulability, small inertia, low friction, high transparency, as well as cost constraints. The requirements are a basis for creating and assessing design concepts. Concept evaluation relies to a large extent on a systematic usage of kinematic, dynamic, stiffness, friction, and control models. The design process can benefit from a model-based and simulation-driven approach, where one starts from an abstract top-level model that is extended via stepwise refinements and design space exploration into a detailed and integrated systems model that can be physically realized. Such an approach is presented, put in context of the V-model, and evaluated through a test case where a haptic device, based on a Stewart platform, is designed and realized. It can be concluded, based on simulation and experimental results that the performance of this deterministically optimized haptic device satisfies the stated user requirements. Experiences from this case indicate that the methodology is capable of supporting effective and efficient development of high performing haptic devices. However, more test cases are needed to further validate the presented methodology.

Keyword
Estimation, Haptic device, Model-based design
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144179 (URN)10.1016/j.mechatronics.2014.01.006 (DOI)000344825700006 ()2-s2.0-84908117938 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141211

Available from: 2014-04-11 Created: 2014-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. A stiffness modeling methodology for simulation-driven design of haptic devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A stiffness modeling methodology for simulation-driven design of haptic devices
2014 (English)In: Engineering with Computers, ISSN 0177-0667, E-ISSN 1435-5663, Vol. 30, no 1, 125-141 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Efficient development and engineering of high performing interactive devices, such as haptic robots for surgical training benefits from model-based and simulation-driven design. The complexity of the design space and the multi-domain and multi-physics character of the behavior of such a product ask for a systematic methodology for creating and validating compact and computationally efficient simulation models to be used in the design process. Modeling the quasi-static stiffness is an important first step before optimizing the mechanical structure, engineering the control system, and performing hardware in the loop tests. The stiffness depends not only on the stiffness of the links, but also on the contact stiffness in each joint. A fine-granular Finite element method (FEM) model, which is the most straightforward approach, cannot, due to the model size and simulation complexity, efficiently be used to address such tasks. In this work, a new methodology for creating an analytical and compact model of the quasi-static stiffness of a haptic device is proposed, which considers the stiffness of actuation systems, flexible links and passive joints. For the modeling of passive joints, a hertzian contact model is introduced for both spherical and universal joints, and a simply supported beam model for universal joints. The validation process is presented as a systematic guideline to evaluate the stiffness parameters both using parametric FEM modeling and physical experiments. Preloading has been used to consider the clearances and possible assembling errors during manufacturing. A modified JP Merlet kinematic structure is used to exemplify the modeling and validation methodology.

Keyword
Haptic interfaces, parallel/serial kinematic structures, stiffness methodology, pre-loading
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98665 (URN)10.1007/s00366-012-0296-4 (DOI)000329241000009 ()2-s2.0-84892679582 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140211. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. An optimization approach towards a robust design of 6-DOF haptic devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An optimization approach towards a robust design of 6-DOF haptic devices
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144211 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-04-15Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation of friction models for haptic devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of friction models for haptic devices
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work different friction models are evaluated to determine how well these models are suited for performance simulation and control of a 6-DOF haptic device. The studied models include, Dahl model, LuGre model, Generalized Maxwell slip model (GMS), smooth Generalized Maxwell slip model (S-GMS) and Differential Algebraic Multistate (DAM) friction model. These models are evaluated both numerically and experimentally with an existing 6-DOF haptic device that is based on a Stewart platform. In order to evaluate how well these models compensate friction, a model-based feedback friction compensation strategy along with a PID controller were used for position fracking accuracy The accuracies of the friction compensation models are examined separately for both low-velocity and high-velocity motions of the system. To evaluate these models, we use criteria based on fidelity to predict realistic friction phenomena, easiness to implement, computational efficiency and easiness to estimate the model parameters. Experimental results show that friction compensated with GMS, S-GMS and DAA4 models give better accuracy in terms of standard deviation, Root Mean Squared Error, and maximum error between a reference and measured trajectory. Based on the criteria of fidelity, ease of implementation and ease to estimate model parameters, the S-GMS model, which represents a smooth transition between sliding and pre-sliding regime through an analytical set of differential equations, is suggested.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144212 (URN)10.1115/DSCC2013-3982 (DOI)000337043200053 ()2-s2.0-84902380574 (Scopus ID)978-0-7918-5613-0 (ISBN)
Conference
DSCC 2013 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference October 21-23, 2013
Note

QC 20140415

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-07-10Bibliographically approved
5. Model-based control strategy for 6-DOF haptic devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based control strategy for 6-DOF haptic devices
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144215 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-04-15Bibliographically approved

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