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Transparency for future semi-automated systems: effects of transparency on operator performance, workload and trust
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

More and more complex semi-automated systems are being developed, aiding human operators to collect and analyze data and information and even to recommend decisions and act upon these. The goal of such development is often to support the operators make better decisions faster, while at the same time decrease their workload. However, these promises are not always fulfilled and several incidents have highlighted the fact that the introduction of automated technologies might instead increase the need for human involvement andexpertise in the tasks carried out.

The significance of communicating information regarding an automated system's performance and to explain its strengths and limitations to its operators is strongly highlighted within the system transparencyand operator-centered automation literature. However, it is not common that feedback containing system qualifiers is incorporated into the primary displays of the automated system, obscuring its transparency. In this thesis, we deal with the investigation of the effects of explaining and visualizing system reasoning and performance parameters in different domains on the operators' trust, workload and performance. Different proof-of-concept prototypes have been designed with transparency characteristics in mind, and quantitative and qualitative evaluations together with operators of these systems have been carried out.

Our results show that the effects of automation transparency can positively influence the performance and trust calibration of operators of complex systems, yet possibly at the costs of higher workload and longer decision-making times. Further, this thesis provides recommendations for designers and developers of automated systems in terms of general design concepts and guidelines for developing transparent automated systems for the future.

Abstract [sv]

Fler och fler komplexa semiautomatiserade system utvecklas idag, vilka hjälper operatörer att samla in och analysera data och information och även att rekommendera beslut och agera på dessa. Det yttersta målet med implementeringen av automatiserade system är ofta att hjälpa operatörerna att fatta bättre beslut snabbare och samtidigt minska deras arbetsbelastning. Dock blir detta inte alltid fallet och flera olyckor har uppmärksammat faktumet att introduktionen av automatiserade system istället kan öka behovet av mänsklig inblandning och expertis.

Inom forskningsområden såsom automationstransparens och operatörscentrerad automation har vikten av att kommunicera information angående automationens prestanda betonats, likaså att förklara dess styrkor och svagheter för operatörerna. Dock är det inte vanligt att sådan meta-information inkorporeras i de automatiska systemens primära användargränssnitt, vilket kan försvåra det för operatörerna att tillgodogöra sig denna information. I denna avhandling undersöks effekterna av att förklara och visualisera semiautomatiserade systems resonerande och prestanda i olika domäner på operatörernas tillit till systemen, deras upplevda arbetsbörda och deras prestation. Olika konceptprototyper har designats med inkorporerade transparensegenskaper och kvalitativa och kvantitativa utvärderingar tillsammans med operatörer av dessa system har genomförts.

Resultaten visar att automationstransparens kan ha positiva effekter på operatörers prestanda och tillitskalibrering, dock med möjliga kostnader i form av högre upplevd arbetsbelastning och längre beslutstider. Avhandlingen erbjuder även rekommendationer till designers och utvecklare i form av generella riktlinjer och designegenskaper vid utvecklandet av framtida transparenta semiautomatiserade stödsystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university , 2014. , 266 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 60
Keyword [en]
semi-automation, trust, system transparency, meta-information, information fusion
Keyword [sv]
semiautomation, tillit, systemtransparens, meta-information, informationsfusion
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34619ISBN: 978-91-7529-020-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-34619DiVA: diva2:710832
Public defence
2014-05-23, Sal G109, Högskolan i Skövde, Högskolevägen, Skövde, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA, NFFP5-2009-01315
Note

The author is also affiliated to the university of Skövde

This research has been founded by The Swedish Governmental Agency for InnovationSystems (Vinnova) through the National Aviation Engineering Research Program(NFFP5-2009-01315) and supported by Saab AB.

Available from: 2014-04-08 Created: 2014-04-08 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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