Adhesive wear testing and modelling of tool steels sliding against sheet metals
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sheet metal forming is a manufacturing method used because of its versatility. Sheets are plastically deformed by a tool to create a product. A tool is expected to last for several 100,000 forming operations and efforts are made to optimize the tools. A common type of wear referred to as galling is the adhesion of sheet material to the tools. This problem has become more prevalent as new high strength sheet materials have been developed at the same time as lubricants have become heavily regulated. This has forced the development of new tool steels with improved resistance to galling. There are many parameters influencing the response to galling. In this work the influence of surface preparation, contact geometry, material selection and lubrication has been investigated. The surface of the forming tools has a large influence on the tools effective life. To refurbish a forming tool is expensive and often requires special shops and hand polishing. The influence on galling of different surface preparations suited for sheet metal forming was investigated using a strip-reduction equipment. The contact conditions of a tool sliding against metal sheets were investigated using FE models. The contact conditions were calculated for a U-bending test and for a sliding-on-flat-surface wear tester. The results were compared to those found in literature. One model incorporated the surface roughness of a sheet as measured by optical profilometry. The strength of the interface between the tool and the sheet material determine if material can be transferred onto the tool. The interface between the tool and adhered sheet material was closely studied using transmission electron microscopy of thin lamellas produced by focused ion beam milling. This showed sheet material adhering to the tool without the formation of an interlayer. Finally, several different combinations of tool steels and sheet materials were tested with regards to their ability to withstand galling.
Sheet metal forming can be used to produce a wide range of products but the initial costs are high as the forming tools are expensive. Wear of the tools in the form of galling i.e. the adhesion of tiny pieces of sheet material to the tools has become more prevalent as high strength sheet materials have been developed and lubricants have become heavily regulated.
In this work the influence on galling of surface preparation, contact geometry, material selection and lubrication has been investigated. It was found that tool surfaces should be polished as rougher surfaces quickly picked up material that adhered to the tools and subsequently scratched the sheets. The strength of the interface between the tool and the sheet material determine if material can be transferred onto the tool. The interface was studied using bright field transmission electron microscopy and the sheet material was found to adhere to the tool without the formation of an interlayer. The conditions under which galling occurs were studied using a slider on flat surface wear tester and several different material combinations were tested with regards to their galling resistance. The contact conditions of the test equipment were also modeled using FE models to better understand the strains of the materials involved.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014. , 64 p.
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2014:25
Research subject Materials Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-31793ISBN: 978-91-7063-556-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-31793DiVA: diva2:708845
2014-05-09, 21A342, Eva Erikssonsalen, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Olsson, Mikael, Professor
Bergström, Jens, ProfessorKrakhmalev, Pavel, Professor
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