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Phylogenetics and taxonomy of the Gorteria clade (Asteraceae-Arctotideae)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the systematics of the Gorteria-Gazania-Hirpicium-clade within the tribe Arctotideae-Gorteriinae in the angiosperm family Asteraceae. The group is found in southern Africa, with many representatives in the Greater Cape Floristic Region in South Africa, an area known for its high species richness and endemism. Specifically, species delimitation within Gorteria and its intergeneric relationships to Hirpicium and Gazania were investigated.

Previous phylogenetical studies showed that the two shrubby Hirpicium alienatum and H. integrifolium were more closely related to the herbaceous genus Gorteria than to remaining species of Hirpicium. During field studies additional proof of their affinity was found when these two, like Gorteria, were found to have capitulum diaspores.

Gorteria was phylogenetically investigated with a large number of samples from different populations of G. diffusa, a species showing striking variation in ray floret coloration. The study showed that the current division of the genus into three species (Gorteria corymbosa, G. diffusa and G. personata) was not supported and it was also shown that the two Hirpicium species were not sister to but nested within a paraphyletic Gorteria. The necessary nomenclatural changes were made including the new combination Gorteria alienata but left remaining species of Hirpicium unassigned to a genus because the type of Hirpicium was included in Gorteria.

When the intergeneric relationship between Gorteria, Gazania and the remaining species of Hirpicium were investigated in detail it was shown that an additional four species of Hirpicium had also evolved from an ancestor within Gorteria. The generic name Berkheyopsis was resurrected for the morphologically deviating Hirpicium echinus while a new genus, Roessleria, was described for the remaining species of Hirpicium. There was high support for a monophyletic Gazania even though the relationship among the genera was unresolved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University , 2014. , 34 p.
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102140ISBN: 978-91-7447-896-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-102140DiVA: diva2:708304
Public defence
2014-05-16, Lecture Hall, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

 

Available from: 2014-04-24 Created: 2014-03-27 Last updated: 2014-04-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Diaspore capitula in Hirpicium supports close evolutionary relationship to Gorteria (Asteraceae–Arctotideae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diaspore capitula in Hirpicium supports close evolutionary relationship to Gorteria (Asteraceae–Arctotideae)
2009 (English)In: South African Journal of Botany, ISSN 0254-6299, E-ISSN 1727-9321, Vol. 75, no 3, 600-605 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Among the 17 genera in the southern African tribe Arctotideae (Asteraceae), only the three genera of subtribe Gorteriinae (Cuspidia, Gorteria and Didelta) have capitula that function as diaspores. The feature is reported here also in the genus Hirpicium for the first time. The discovery supports recent phylogenetic studies of the group that Hirpicium integrifolium and H. alienation are more closely related to Gorteria than to the rest of the Hirpicium species.

Keyword
Asteraceae, Diaspore, Gorteria, Gorteriinae, Hirpicium, South Africa
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-30452 (URN)10.1016/j.sajb.2009.03.002 (DOI)000269416400021 ()
Available from: 2009-10-14 Created: 2009-10-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Evolutionary relationships in Gorteria: A re-evaluation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary relationships in Gorteria: A re-evaluation
2013 (English)In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 62, no 3, 537-549 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A molecular phylogeny of the mainly South African genus Gorteria is presented for the first time, based on Bayesian inference and parsimony analyses using DNA sequences from plastid trnL-F and from nuclear ETS and ITS regions. It is shown that the genus is strongly paraphyletic in relation to one subgroup of Hirpicium, a finding that changes the prevailing generic concept and circumscription of Gorteria and Hirpicium. Furthermore, Gorteria diffusa and G. personata both seem to be polyphyletic assemblages, comprised of some more or less well diagnosed monophyletic groups with different distributions.

Keyword
Asteraceae, Gorteria, Hirpicium, molecular phylogenetics, South Africa
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93134 (URN)10.12705/623.3 (DOI)000322751100008 ()
Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Morphology and taxonomic reclassification of Gorteria (Asteraceae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphology and taxonomic reclassification of Gorteria (Asteraceae)
2014 (English)In: Willdenowia, ISSN 0511-9618, E-ISSN 1868-6397, Vol. 44, 97-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A phylogeny of the South African and Namibian genus Gorteria was recently elucidated by analysis of DNA sequencedata, which indicated that the prevailing taxonomic concepts of generic circumscription and species delimitationsdo not reflect the evolutionary history of the group. In the present paper a reclassification of the genus ispresented. The treatment includes an overview of morphological variation, an identification key, descriptions anda distribution map for all of the eight species recognized, including three new combinations (G. alienata, G. parviligulataand G. piloselloides) and one new species (G. warmbadica). Two lectotypes are designated (G. affinis andOedera (Gorteria) alienata).

Keyword
Arctotideae, Compositae, Gorteriinae, Hirpicium, Namibia, South Africa
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102040 (URN)10.3372/wi.44.44112 (DOI)000334662400013 ()
Available from: 2014-03-24 Created: 2014-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Intergeneric relationships in the Gazania-Gorteria-Hirpicium clade of Arctotideae-Gorteriinae, with description of a new genus, Roessleria
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intergeneric relationships in the Gazania-Gorteria-Hirpicium clade of Arctotideae-Gorteriinae, with description of a new genus, Roessleria
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several phylogenetic studies in the Arctotideae-Gorteriinae (Asteraceae) have found support for aGazania-Gorteria-Hirpicium clade. The results have also indicated Hirpicium to be a paraphyleticgenus whereas Gorteria and Gazania have both been found to be monophyletic. Previousinvestigations at the genus level on this group have focused only on relationships in Gazania andGorteria, respectively, with only a few Hirpicium species included. In the present study we includemore taxa than in any previous investigation, including all species of Hirpicium, all species ofGorteria and virtually all taxa of Gazania. The resulting phylogenetical hypothesis, based on DNAdata from non-coding (rps16, trnL-F, and psbA-trnH) as well as coding (ndhF) regions from theplastid genome together with DNA data from the ribosomal regions (ETS and ITS) from the nucleargenome, suggests three major clades. No support for any relationships between these major cladescould be found but there is strong support for a monophyletic Gazania. The genus Hirpicium, aspresently circumscribed, is paraphyletic with one group of species nested within Gorteria while allremaining species of Hirpicium form a monophyletic group with two clades, morphologically welldefined,and with high molecular support. As the name Hirpicium is synonym of Gorteria, newnames for the remaining Hirpicium species must be proposed. For one of the Hirpicium clades wesuggest a resurrection of the genus name Berkheyopsis O.Hoffm., and for the species belonging tothe other clade a new generic name, Roessleria Stångb. & Anderb., is proposed. The necessaryrecombinations, 12 in total, are made, as well as five lectotypifications and one neotypification. Akey to the genera in their new circumscription is presented.

National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102138 (URN)
Available from: 2014-03-27 Created: 2014-03-27 Last updated: 2014-03-29

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