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Wind power in cold climates: Ice mapping methods
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. (LUVAL - vindenergi)
SMHI.
Weathertech Scandinavia.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. (LUVAL - vindenergi)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3064-1338
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2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the Vindforsk V-313 project “Vindkraft i kallt klimat” the goal was to arrive at a methodology to construct a high resolution (1x1 km2) climatology of icing on wind power turbines. This is a very demanding task since observations of icing on instruments have only been routinely available in Sweden during three winter seasons and at a dozen locations. The term climatology in classical meteorology means statistics over 30 years of data, and usually in the form of direct or indirect measurements. Examples are mean temperatures (annual, monthly, maximum etc.), number of frost days, growing season, variability, number of days of precipitation, mean winds, cloudiness, solar radiation, to name a few.In the project researchers from Uppsala University, WeatherTech Scandinavia, and SMHI have been collaborating. Observations have been analysed and state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models have been applied in case studies and tested in several sensitivity studies. Extensive model verification has been carried out. Modelled ice load and estimated production losses were also compared to measurements. The question of how to arrive at a method using only a few years to represent the long-term climatology was addressed and several methods were tested.The project has shed light on the uncertainties in modelling ice load and icing climate. The end results not only depend on which mesoscale model that is used but also on how the model is set up. In order to improve the models more accurate measurements of ice load is needed. Observations of liquid cloud water content and droplet size distributions could also be of significant value to better understand why the ice load models fail in capturing the observed ice load.

Abstract [sv]

I Vindforsk V-313 projektet "Vindkraft i kallt klimat" har målet varit att utveckla metoder för att konstruera en högupplöst (1x1 km2) klimatologi för isbildning på vindkraftverk. Detta är en mycket krävande uppgift eftersom instrumentella observationer av isbildning bara har varit rutinmässigt tillgängliga i Sverige under tre vintersäsonger och endast på ett dussintal platser. Termen klimatologi i klassisk meteorologi betyder statistik över 30 års data, och oftast i form av direkta eller indirekta observationer. Exempel är medeltemperaturen (årlig, månatlig, maximum etc.), antal frostdagar, växtsäsong, variabilitet, antal dagar med nederbörd, medelvind, molnighet, solinstrålning, för att nämna några.I projektet har forskare från Uppsala universitet, WeatherTech Scandinavia och SMHI samarbetat. Observationer har analyserats och ”state-of-the-art” numeriska väderprognosermodeller har tillämpats i fallstudier och testats i ett flertal känslighetsstudier. Omfattande modellverifieringar har utförts. Modellerad islast och beräknade produktionsförluster har också jämförts med mätningar. Flera metoder testades med syfte att erhålla en metod med vilken man kan representera en långsiktig klimatologi baserad på endast ett fåtal års data.Projektet har belyst osäkerheterna i modellering av islast och isklimat. Slutresultaten beror inte enbart på vilken mesoskalig modell som används utan även på hur modellen är uppsatt. För att förbättra modellerna behövs mer exakta mätningar av islast. Observationer av mängden molnvatten och fördelningen av droppstorlek kan också vara av stort värde för att bättre förstå varför modellerna inte lyckas beskriva den islast som observationerna ger.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Elforsk AB , 2013. , 244 p.
Series
Elforsk Rapport, 13:10
Keyword [en]
icing, surface layer, wind power, modelling, measurements, climatology
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-220188OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-220188DiVA: diva2:704372
Projects
Vindforsk - Vind power in cold climates
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, V-313
Available from: 2014-03-12 Created: 2014-03-12 Last updated: 2016-12-08Bibliographically approved

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Bergström, HansThorsson, Petra

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