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Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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2013 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 6, no 10, 4361-4374 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI , 2013. Vol. 6, no 10, 4361-4374 p.
Keyword [en]
ZnO nanoparticles; chitosan; ZnO nanorods; well-aligned; low-temperature growth
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104420DOI: 10.3390/ma6104361ISI: 000330295600005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-104420DiVA: diva2:696969
Available from: 2014-02-17 Created: 2014-02-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures, their characterization and chemical sensing applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures, their characterization and chemical sensing applications
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The existence of nanomaterials is a revolutionizing step towards the fabrication of nanodevices and it enhances the enthusiasm of the researchers for the development of new devices with improved performance relative to that of bulk material based devices. Among the nanomaterials, the metal oxide nanostructures have drawn the attention of scientific community in the development of different biochemical and biomedical nanodevices in the recent time. Today, the nanotechnology based applications of several materials particularly biosensing, molecular imaging, biological separation, biomarkers and photodynamic therapy have given wide spectrum of the fabrication of novel and sensitive nanodevices. The attraction of nanomaterials based devices is hidden in the fact of their desirable and unique properties such as high surface to volume ratio, biocompatibility, fast electron transfer rate, and nontoxic in many cases. The biocompatibility is the most favourable property of several nanomaterials such as ZnO, TiO2 etc. which provide the solid platform for the synthesis of nanomedicine. In the sensor technology, the uses of nanomaterials have shown the drastic and bombastic realization of high sensitivity for a particular sensor and the possible detection of specific analytes from their small volumes. The metal oxide nanostructures show a fast electron communication, and high degree of adsorption of biosensitive material which further enhances the sensitivity of nanosensor device. The metal oxides nanostructures  exhibit tuneable size; morphology based chemical and physical properties which are easily to combine with biosensitive material in the fabrication of sensitive chemical and biosensors. The metal oxide nanostructures experienced attractive surface chemistry, high surface  to volume ratio, valuable thermal and electrical properties, therefore the development of nanosensors is accompanied by high sensitivity, low limit of detection and a fast response time.

In this dissertation, several metal oxide nanostructures have been presented such as ZnO, CuO, NiO, Co3O4, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, NiCo2O4 and TiO2. By exploiting the favourable properties of these metal oxides for the sensing, thus have been used potentially in the fabrication of chemical nanosensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 56 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1577
Keyword
Hydrothermal method, seed layer, ZnO nanorods, ZnO nanotubes, immunosensor, iron ferrite, glucose sensor, well aligned ZnO nanorods, CuO nanoleaves, CuO nanosheets, CuO bundle of nanowires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104422 (URN)978-91-7519-394-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-20, K 3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-02-17 Created: 2014-02-17 Last updated: 2014-02-17Bibliographically approved
2. Synthesising Metal Oxide Materials and Their Composite Nanostructures for Sensing and Optoelectronic Device Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesising Metal Oxide Materials and Their Composite Nanostructures for Sensing and Optoelectronic Device Applications
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research on nanomaterials has been revolutionized in the last few years because of the attractive properties they have in comparison to the bulk phase of similar materials. These properties are physical, chemical, catalytic and optical. Among these nanomaterials, the metal oxide nanostructures have become of particular interest to scientists for the development of different optical, biochemical and biomedical nanodevices. In the present research work using the advantageous features of nanotechnology, high performance nanodevices for optoelectronics with a wide band gap compound nanostructure and highly sensitive sensor devices have been demonstrated. The nanotechnology is used to fabricate sensitive and precise nanodevices based on nanomaterials for the application of sensing.

Among metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO, CuO and NiO are attractive materials because of their unique properties; their high surface area to volume ratio, their energy band gap of 3.37 eV, 1.2 eV and 3.7 eV, respectively, biocompatibility, high electron mobility, fast electron transfer rate and they are environmental-friendly in many applications. When used in sensor devices, nanomaterials have indicated high selectivity for possible use to detect the various analytes even in small volumes. Metal oxide nanostructures have shown to be good for optoelectronic nanodevices because of their electrical characteristics, high optical absorption and low-processing temperature.

In this thesis, the synthesis of different morphologies of metal oxide semiconductor nanostructures and their composite using the hydrothermal method are demonstrated for various applications. This thesis is divided into three parts:

In the first part of this research work, the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods using different concentrations of composite seed layer of inorganic and organic materials when using the hydrothermal growth method is presented. The effect of the composite seed layer on the alignment, density and optical properties of the grown ZnO nanorods is investigated (paper I). Utilizing the advantage of ZnO nanostructure, a comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing application was carried out. The ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalized with strontium ionophore membrane, immobilized the galactose oxidase and lactate oxidase for determining the strontium ions, D-galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively (paper II).

In the second part, the effects of different urea concentrations on the morphology of CuO nanostructures is studied as described in paper III. Moreover, CuO nanoflowers were functionalized with cadmium ion ionophore for the detection of Cd ions, while CuO nanosheets were grown by the low temperature growth method and were used for the development of a nonenzymatic glucose sensor, respectively (Paper IV).

In the last part of this thesis, composite nanostructures of CuO/ZnO and NiO/ZnO were applied to develop dopamine sensor and fast sensitive UV photodetector, respectively. A nanohybrid of CuO/ZnO nanostructure was used as a non-enzymatic electrode to detect dopamine by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric techniques (Paper V). In paper VI, we have demonstrated a strong UV absorption from ZnO nano-sheets achieved by the supramoleculesassisted growth solution using the hydrothermal method. The synthesized nanomaterial was used in the fabrication of UV photodetector based on p-NiO/ n-ZnO heterostructures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 56 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1628
Keyword
Hydrothermal method; metal oxide nanostructure; composite seed solution; wellaligned ZnO nanorods; composite structures; glucose and dopamine non-enzymatic sensors; heavy metals; supramolecular; UV photodetector sensor
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112865 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-112865 (DOI)978-91-7519-207-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-19, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2015-01-14Bibliographically approved

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