Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Crime Clusters and Safety in Underground Stations
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis is to explore ways to assess safety in an urban context and intransport nodes. The thesis is composed of articles which aim at assessing whether safety levels vary within a city, at a public transportation network, particularly at stations, and finally making suggestions to increase safety in these environments. The analysis makes use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), statistical techniques and combines several different data sources. Fieldwork supports the data sources by presenting an investigation of the current environment at and around the underground stations in Stockholm. Regression models were used to assess the (strength) relationships between levels of crime and the socialand physical environment at underground stations.

Findings show that urban crime in Stockholm municipality concentrates in stable hotspots, however, varying by type of crime, in different places at different times. A majority of the hotspots were located close to underground stations. The environment at underground stations has a significant impact on the crime levels at these transport nodes. For instance, low guardianship opportunities were related with higher crime rates, while well-illuminated and open stations showed lower crime rates. An open lay-out would provide better opportunities for guardianship, which in turn may decrease crime levels. The surrounding socio-economic composition of neighborhoods and the physical and social environment surrounding the stations affected crime levels similarly. For instance, mixed land-uses surrounding the station could be linked to increased crime rates. However, crime levels showed a varying distribution over time and space. Different stations showed different levels of crime at different times of the day, moreover, this also showed to be depended on crime type. For instance, theft wouldconcentrate at central stations at peak hours, when it is most crowded. The results include suggestions for policymakers and organizations dealing with urban safety, planning and public transportation, such as police, transportation companies and municipal planners.

The results suggest that crime interventions should take into account the dynamic patterns of crime and adopt a more holistic approach taking into account the station and its surroundings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 42 p.
Series
TRITA-KTH-CEFIN-DT, ISSN 1654-9376 ; 09
Keyword [en]
Safety, urban crime, crime distribution, spatial-temproal patterns, underground stations, public transport, environmental attributes, crime prevention
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141168ISBN: 978-91-87111-95-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-141168DiVA: diva2:695303
Public defence
2014-02-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Safety in Transport Nodes: The Influence of Environmental Attrivutes on Crime and Perceived Safety
Note

QC 20140211

Available from: 2014-02-11 Created: 2014-02-10 Last updated: 2014-02-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Space-Time Clusters of crime in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Space-Time Clusters of crime in Stockholm, Sweden
2012 (English)In: Review of European Studies, ISSN 1918-7173, E-ISSN 1918-7181, Vol. 4, no 5, 148-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study is to detect geographical clustering of offences over time using Kulldorff’s scan test(SaTScan version 9.01; Kulldorff, 2010) and police recorded data over Stockholm city, the capital of Sweden.This technique has a rigorous inference theory for identifying statistically significant clusters. The space–timescan statistics are used in a single retrospective analysis using data from 1st January 2006 to 31st December2009. A four years’ dataset is collapsed into ‘one year’. All space-time dimensions of the data are kept except‘year’. Clusters over the hours of the day, weekday and weekend and by seasons were tested. Total populationbut also day-time and night-time populations were used as reference. Findings show clear distinct patterns ofconcentration for violence (assault and threat) and property crimes (theft, robbery and burglary) over time andspace. Whilst property crimes tend to happen more often in the afternoons in the center and regional commercialcenters in the southern and western parts of Stockholm, violence takes place more often in the night, and isheavily concentrated in large parts of the city center. Weekends are more targeted than weekdays for bothoffences. Regardless of day of the week, the main urban core of the city contains the most likely cluster thatextends to commercial and socially disorganized areas in the west and south Stockholm. Whilst property crimelevels do not show significant differences over the seasons, violent crimes levels do (winter and summer). Themost likely clusters tend to be fairly constant in space over time. The article ends with implications of the resultsfor both research and practice.

Keyword
spatial concentration, space-time cluster, poisson discrete model, violent and property offences
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117897 (URN)10.5539/res.v4n5p148 (DOI)2-s2.0-84873892974 (Scopus ID)
Conference
1st Conference on Spatial Statistics 2011. Mapping Global Change. 23-25 March 2011, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and preceived safety
Note

QC 20130211

Available from: 2013-02-06 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Security in Stockholm's underground stations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Security in Stockholm's underground stations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
2013 (English)In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 26, no 1, 33-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this article is to report on the security conditions in underground stations and surrounding areas in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The study is based on a comprehensive fieldwork combined with Geographical Information Systems techniques and regression models. Findings show that a relatively small share of reported events is crime; acts of public disorder are more common at the stations. Events tend to happen in the evenings - nights, holidays and weekends - and, at least for theft, in the hotter months of the year. Although the highest number of events is found in the central station, the so-called 'end-stations' show often higher rates than those located in the inner city. Results show that opportunities for crime are dependent on stations' environmental attributes, type of neighbourhood in which they are located and city context. These findings lend weight to principles of traditional urban criminology theory such as routine activity and social disorganisation. The article concludes with directions for future research and suggestions for policy.

Keyword
crime and disorder, transport nodes, GIS, regression models, Scandinavian capital
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-61265 (URN)10.1057/sj.2011.32 (DOI)000313745200003 ()2-s2.0-84872438643 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety in Stockholm´s undergroundstations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
Note

QC 20130204

Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Space-Time Dynamics of Crime in Transport Nodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Space-Time Dynamics of Crime in Transport Nodes
2014 (English)In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 104, no 1, 131-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article assesses space-time variations of crime rates in underground stations. Drawing on assumptions from time geography, routine activity principles, and defensible space theory, the study investigates daily, weekly, and seasonal variations of crime at underground stations in the Swedish capital, Stockholm. Data from extensive field work at the stations was combined with crime records and passenger flow to test whether stations' environmental attributes affect crime at different times. Geographical information systems, spatial statistic techniques, and modeling underpin the methodology used in the study. Findings show that crimes tend to happen more often in the evening, at night, on holidays, and on weekends. There is also evidence of seasonal variations of crime. In the winter, stations with social disturbance and signs of deterioration show high levels of crime, whereas in the summer, offenses are concentrated in stations nearby alcohol selling outlets. Stations with hiding spots are often targeted for crime during daily peak hours, whereas during holidays, crowded stations and those with alcohol selling outlets attract more criminal activities. Results suggest that the role of the stations' environment on crime causation varies over timean important fact for safety interventions.

Keyword
cluster analysis, GIS, offenses, space-time dynamics
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139511 (URN)10.1080/00045608.2013.846150 (DOI)000328247600008 ()2-s2.0-84890554315 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140114

Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Safety in Stockholm's Underground Stations: An Agenda for Action
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety in Stockholm's Underground Stations: An Agenda for Action
2014 (English)In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 20, no 1, 73-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this article is to propose an agenda for interventions to prevent or reduce crime and disorder at underground stations in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The article first reports the nature, the levels, and the patterns of crime and disorder across time and space. Different types of crime are analyzed and specific conclusions are drawn for each type of crime which relate to the suggested interventions presented in this article. Findings lend weight to principles of situational crime prevention to improve security in transport nodes, with overlaps with routine activity and social disorganization theories. Intervention measures comprehend suggestions on both environmental design related changes and more complex social aspects regarding the reduction of crime at transport nodes. Suggestions for interventions at Stockholm's underground stations, as presented here, constitute an illustration of what can be achieved with situational crime prevention principles; however, they may not be regarded as a "one-size-fits-all" solution to the demands and challenges of safety in transport nodes elsewhere.

Keyword
transport nodes, crime prevention, safety, underground stations, Stockholm
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117901 (URN)10.1007/s10610-013-9212-8 (DOI)000332015600004 ()2-s2.0-84894293117 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and perceived safety
Note

QC 20140328

Available from: 2013-02-06 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext_CrimeClustersSafetyUndergroundStations(849 kB)381 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 849 kBChecksum SHA-512
3f3b4449f7eac5d9226dfea54fa2f8fb3a647f61d8e0b77306711ee14156c383a1e41aebb140afa94098e7209890ead30a1a12c54cd7937bd6340cd843aa2091
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Uittenbogaard, Adriaan Cornelis
By organisation
Real Estate and Construction Management
Civil Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 381 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 390 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf