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Influence of Frequency on Compaction of Sand in Small-Scale Tests
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7361-0729
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vibratory rollers are commonly used for compaction of embankments and landfills. In a majority of large construction projects, this activity constitutes a significant part of the project cost and causes considerable emissions. Thus, by improving the compaction efficiency, the construction industry would reduce costs and environmental impact. In recent years, rollers have been significantly improved in regard to engine efficiency, control systems, safety and driver comfort. However, very little progress has been made in compaction effectiveness. While the compaction procedure (e.g. layer thickness and number of passes) has been optimized over the years, the process in which the machine compacts the underlying soil is essentially identical to the situation in the 1970s.

This research project investigates the influence of one crucial parameter, namely vibration frequency of the drum, which normally is a fixed roller parameter. Frequency is essential in all dynamic systems but its influence on the compaction efficiency has not been studied since the early days of soil compaction. Since laboratory and field equipment, measurement systems and analysis techniques at the time were not as developed as they are today, no explicit conclusion was drawn. Frequencyvariable oscillators, digital sensors and computer‐based analysis now provide possibilities to accurately study this concept in detail.

In order to examine the influence of vibration frequency on the compaction of granular soil, small‐ scale tests were conducted under varying conditions. A vertically oscillating plate was placed on a sand bed contained in a test box. The experiments were carried out in laboratory conditions to maximize controllability. The first test setup utilized an electro‐dynamic oscillator where dynamic quantities, such as frequency and particle velocity amplitude, could be varied in real‐time. The second test setup included two counter‐rotating eccentric mass oscillators, where tests were conducted at discrete frequencies. This type of oscillator has a force amplitude that is governed by frequency.

The main objectives of the tests were to determine the optimal compaction frequency and whether resonance can be utilized to improve compaction efficiency. Results showed that resonance had a major influence in the electro‐dynamic oscillator tests, where the applied force amplitude is low, and the optimal compaction frequency is the resonant frequency under these circumstances. In the rotating mass oscillator tests, where a high force was applied to the plate, resonant amplification was present but not as pronounced. Since force increase with frequency, the optimal frequency to obtain the highest degree of compaction is very large. In a practical regard, however, frequency should be kept as low as possible to minimize machine wear and emissions while still achieving a sufficient compaction of the soil. Considering the practical issues, it is proposed that surface compactors should operate slightly above the resonant frequency. However, the applicability to vibratory rollers must be confirmed in full‐scale tests.

The thesis also presents an iterative method to calculate the frequency response of a vibrating plate, incorporating strain‐dependent soil properties. Calculated dynamic quantities are compared to measured values, confirming that the method accurately predicts the response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xiv, 30 p.
Series
TRITA-JOB. LIC, ISSN 1650-951X ; 2023
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140617OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-140617DiVA: diva2:691869
Presentation
2014-02-07, Sal B2, Brinellvägen 23, entreplan, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140129

Available from: 2014-01-29 Created: 2014-01-29 Last updated: 2014-01-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Small-Scale Testing of Frequency-Dependent Compaction of Sand Using a Vertically Vibrating Plate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small-Scale Testing of Frequency-Dependent Compaction of Sand Using a Vertically Vibrating Plate
2013 (English)In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 36, no 3, 394-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vibratory rollers generally operate at a fixed vibration frequency. It is hypothesized that the compaction of soil could be made more efficient if the frequency could be adapted to specific project conditions. In order to study the applicability to surface compaction, the frequency dependence of compacting dry sand with a vertically vibrating plate was investigated experimentally in 85 small-scale tests. Tests were performed in a test box simulating the free-field condition and with concrete underlying the sand bed. The results show that there is a distinct frequency dependence, implying a significantly improved compaction effect close to the compactor soil resonant frequency. It is suggested that particle velocity is the governing amplitude parameter for vibratory soil compaction, rather than displacement or acceleration. As the soil is compacted, it is also displaced, resulting in surface heave. A larger vibration amplitude implies greater displacement relative to the compacted volume. It was also observed that the compaction and strain-dependent reduction of soil stiffness are closely related.

Keyword
compaction, resonant frequency, strain softening, vibration, particle velocity
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123420 (URN)10.1520/GTJ20120183 (DOI)000318261800010 ()2-s2.0-84878101469 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130610

Available from: 2013-06-10 Created: 2013-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Frequency Variable Surface Compaction of Sand Using Rotating Mass Oscillators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frequency Variable Surface Compaction of Sand Using Rotating Mass Oscillators
2015 (English)In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 38, no 2, 198-207 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of vibration frequency was studied in 110 small-scale compaction tests conducted using a vertically oscillating plate. The underlying soil was dry sand, or sand close to the optimum water content. The results showed that there is a resonant amplification, providing a slightly higher degree of compaction. Frequency has a major influence on soil compaction. An iterative method for calculating the dynamic response of the plate, incorporating strain-dependent properties of the soil, is also presented. The calculated frequency response agrees fairly well with measured quantities.

Keyword
compaction, resonance, strain softening, frequency response, vibratory roller
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138877 (URN)10.1520/GTJ20130193 (DOI)000355852800002 ()
Note

QC 20150626. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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