Sustainable Catalysis: Rational Pd Loading on MIL-101Cr-NH2 for More Efficient and Recyclable Suzuki-Miyaura Reactions
2013 (English)In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 51, 17483-17493 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Palladium nanoparticles have been immobilized into an amino-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101Cr-NH2, to form Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2. Four materials with different loadings of palladium have been prepared (denoted as 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16wt%Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2). The effects of catalyst loading and the size and distribution of the Pd nanoparticles on the catalytic performance have been studied. The catalysts were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N-2-sorption isotherms, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). To better characterize the palladium nanoparticles and their distribution in MIL-101Cr-NH2, electron tomography was employed to reconstruct the 3D volume of 8wt%Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2 particles. The pair distribution functions (PDFs) of the samples were extracted from total scattering experiments using high-energy X-rays (60keV). The catalytic activity of the four MOF materials with different loadings of palladium nanoparticles was studied in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. The best catalytic performance was obtained with the MOF that contained 8wt% palladium nanoparticles. The metallic palladium nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed, with an average size of 2.6nm. Excellent yields were obtained for a wide scope of substrates under remarkably mild conditions (water, aerobic conditions, room temperature, catalyst loading as low as 0.15mol%). The material can be recycled at least 10times without alteration of its catalytic properties.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 19, no 51, 17483-17493 p.
cross-coupling, heterogeneous catalysts, metal-organic frameworks, nanoparticles, palladium
Research subject Organic Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99879DOI: 10.1002/chem.201302621ISI: 000327889800030OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-99879DiVA: diva2:690572
FunderKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVACarl Tryggers foundation