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Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0336-6943
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving simulators and microscopic traffic simulation are important tools for making evaluations of driving and traffic. A driving simulator is de-signed to imitate real driving and is used to conduct experiments on driver behavior. Traffic simulation is commonly used to evaluate the quality of service of different infrastructure designs. This thesis considers a different application of traffic simulation, namely the simulation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators.

The surrounding traffic is one of several factors that influence a driver's mental load and ability to drive a vehicle. The representation of the surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator plays an important role in the striving to create an illusion of real driving. If the illusion of real driving is not good enough, there is an risk that drivers will behave differently than in real world driving, implying that the results and conclusions reached from simulations may not be transferable to real driving.

This thesis has two main objectives. The first objective is to develop a model for generating and simulating autonomous surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator. The approach used by the model developed is to only simulate the closest area of the driving simulator vehicle. This area is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to a microscopic model which includes sub-models for driving behavior, while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming mesoscopic model.

The second objective is to develop an algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events. Driving simulators are often used to study situations that rarely occur in the real traffic system. In order to create the same situations for each subject, the behavior of the surrounding vehicles has traditionally been strictly controlled. This often leads to less realistic surrounding traffic. The algorithm developed makes it possible to use autonomous traffic between the predefined controlled situations, and thereby get both realistic traffc and controlled events. The model and the algorithm developed have been implemented and tested in the VTI driving simulator with promising results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 65 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1248
Keyword [en]
Traffic, Micro, Simulation, Mode, Overtaking, Lane changing, Car following, Rural road, Mathematical model, Simulator, Thesis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-191ISBN: 978-91-7393-660-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-191DiVA: diva2:687684
Public defence
2009-04-24, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-12 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Simulation of rural road traffic for driving simulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of rural road traffic for driving simulators
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 84th Annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., USA, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving simulators are used to conduct experiments on driver behavior, road design, and vehicle characteristics, etc. The results of the experiments often depend on traffic conditions. One example is the evaluation of cellular phones and how they affect driving behavior. It is clear that the ability to use phones when driving depends on traffic intensity and composition, and that realistic experiments in driving simulators must therefore include surrounding traffic. This paper describes a model that generates and simulates surrounding rural road traffc for a driving simulator. The model generates a traffic stream, corresponding to a given target flow and simulates realistic interactions between vehicles. The model is built on established techniques for time-driven microsimulation of traffic. The model only considers the closest neighborhood of the driving simulator vehicle. This neighborhood is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to advanced behavioral models while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming model. The paper also discusses calibration and validation of the model and the problem of combining stochastic traffic and driving simulator scenarios.

Keyword
Simulation, Simulator (driving), Micro, Model (not math)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-192 (URN)
Conference
Annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
2. A Framework for Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators
2008 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, ISSN 1049-3301, E-ISSN 1558-1195, Vol. 18, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes a framework for generation and simulation of surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator. The proposed framework generates a traffic stream, corresponding to a given target flow and simulates realistic interactions between vehicles. The framework is based on an approach in which only a limited area around the driving simulator vehicle is simulated. This closest neighborhood is divided into one inner area and two outer areas. Vehicles in the inner area are simulated according to a microscopic simulation model including advanced submodels for driving behavior while vehicles in the outer areas are updated according to a less time-consuming mesoscopic simulation model. The presented work includes a new framework for generating and simulating vehicles within a moving area. It also includes the development of an enhanced model for overtakings and a simple mesoscopic traffic model. The framework has been validated on the number of vehicles that catch up with the driving simulator vehicle and vice versa. The agreement is good for active and passive catch-ups on rural roads and for passive catch-ups on freeways, but less good for active catch-ups on freeways. The reason for this seems to be deficiencies in the utilized lane-changing model. It has been verified that the framework is able to achieve the target flow and that there is a gain in computational time of using the outer areas. The framework has also been tested within the VTI Driving simulator III.

Keyword
Traffic, Micro, Simulation, Real time, Simulator (driving)
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 25 Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-205 (URN)10.1145/1371574.1371575 (DOI)
Note

© ACM, (2008). This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution.

The definitive version is: Johan Janson Olstam, Jan Lundgren, Mikael Adlers and Pontus Matstoms, A Framework for Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators, 2008, ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, (18), 3, . http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1371574.1371575

Copyright: Association for Computing Machinery

Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Combination of autonomous and controlled vehicles in driving simulator scenarios
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of autonomous and controlled vehicles in driving simulator scenarios
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of Road Safety and Simulation (RSS2007), Rome, Italy, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a design methodology for driving simulator scenarios in which autonomous and controlled surrounding vehicles are combined. The main motives are to achieve both a high realism and high reproducibility. The methodology is introduced using a theater metaphor in which a driving simulator scenario is defined as a constellation of: everyday life driving, preparations for plays, and plays. Advantages, disadvantages and diffiulties with the proposed methodology are discussed.

Keyword
Simulation, Simulator (driving), Method
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-203 (URN)
Conference
Road Safety and Simulation (RSS2007)
Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
4. An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, 1185-1201 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's actions while driving in the autonomous traffic. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves the transition from autonomous traffic to a predefined start condition for a play. The algorithm has been tested in the VTI driving simulator III with promising results. In most of the cases the algorithm could reconstruct the specified start condition and conduct the transition from autonomous to controlled mode in a non-conspicuous way. Some problems were observed regarding moving unwanted vehicles away from the closest area around the simulator vehicle, and this part of the algorithm has to be enhanced. The experiment also showed that the controlled every-day life traffic normally used in the VTI driving simulator makes subjects drive faster than in autonomous traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
Simulation, Micro, Car, Traffic flow, Simulator (driving)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-204 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2011.02.003 (DOI)000295663100018 ()
Note

Funding agencies|Swedish Road Administration, Transport Telematics Sweden||INRETS||

Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Enhancements to the Intelligent Driver Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancements to the Intelligent Driver Model
2010 (English)In: TRB 89th annual meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a modified version of the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) [M. Treiber, A. Hennecke, and D. Helbing, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 2 (2000)]. The IDM is a car-following model. A car-following model controls the accelerations of individual vehicles in a microscopic traffic simulation model. The original IDM has been observed to result in negative vehicle accelerations in situations where the distance to the preceding vehicle is much larger than the estimated desired safety distance. In this paper, we propose a modified function for the interaction with preceding vehicles which do not include this model property. A comparison of the results of simulations with the original and the modified IDM shows that the modified IDM results in higher average speed for a specific flow, a less steep speed-flow relationship and higher capacity. The speed-flow relationships of simulations with the modified IDM are also shown to better match the speed-flow relationships in real traffic on Swedish freeways. The differences between the results for the original and the modified IDM increase if the models are extended to include drivers' anticipation of the downstream traffic condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2010
Keyword
Mathmatical model, Simulator (driving), Micro, Safety, Vehicle spacing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6584 (URN)
Conference
Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting
Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved

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