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Digital (o)jämlikhet? IKT-användning i skolan och elevers tekniska kapital
Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Media, Literature and Language Didactics.
2014 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Digital (in)equality? ICT use in school and pupils' technological capital (English)
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen handlar om digital (o)jämlikhet. Begreppet (o)jämlikhet utgår från en sammanskrivning av jämlikhet och ojämlikhet men uttalas som det sistnämnda. Problematiken kring digital (o)jämlikhet belyses i avhandlingen i form av fyra olika delstudier samt en kappa.

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte är att öka kunskapen om digital (o)jämlikhet genom att empiriskt kartlägga och teoretiskt tolka användning av informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) bland barn och unga vuxna. Ett speciellt fokus läggs vid skolans roll i sammanhanget då den svenska skolan har i sitt uppdrag att ge alla elever en likvärdig utbildning. Skolan ska även kompensera för elevers olika förutsättningar. Genom en enkätstudie och en intervjustudie analyseras grundskole- och gymnasielevers användning av och tillgång till IKT i skolan och i hemmen. Elevernas digitala kompetens i allmänhet och deras kompetens i informationssökning i synnerhet, analyseras också för att skapa en bild av den digitala (o)jämlikheten. I dessa analyser studeras även skolans bidrag till elevers digitala kompetens och digitala jämlikhet. Resultaten av dessa analyser presenteras i två delstudier.

För att få en djupare förståelse för fenomenet digital (o)jämlikhet ur ett internationellt perspektiv utgör en av delstudierna en systematisk forskningsöversikt. Ytterligare ett sätt att fördjupa kunskapen om digital (o)jämlikhet i avhandlingen är att studera fenomenet utifrån en utbildningssociologisk teori vilket genomförs i den sista delstudien. Inom ramen för det övergripande syftet prövas, och granskas kritiskt, därför Selwyns begrepp tekniskt kapital. Tekniskt kapital har sin grund i Bourdieus kapitalbegrepp och syftar därmed på tillgång till och användning av IKT som tillskrivs ett värde.

Resultaten visar att det finns en digital ojämlikhet bland de unga som ingår i studien, trots den till synes höga tillgången till IKT. Avhandlingen visar även att skolan inte klarar sitt uppdrag då eleverna inte får en likvärdig utbildning samt att skolans uppdrag avseende elevers digitala kompetens är oklart. Vidare visar resultatet att begreppet teknisk kapital ger möjlighet till en djupare förståelse av digital (o)jämlikhet. Samtidigt ges förslag på hur begreppet tekniskt kapital kan förfinas ytterligare.

Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis focusses on digital (in)equality; a new concept construed by combining the notions equality and inequality. The concept will for the purpose of this thesis be written as (in)equality constituting a new domain of study as explored in four separate studies together comprising this thesis.

The general aim of the thesis is to increase the knowledge base of digital (in)equality by empirically charting and theoretically interpreting the use of in-formation and communication technology (ICT) by children and adults alike. A specific focus is how ICT is utilised in schools since the Swedish school system is commissioned by law to provide equal education for all. Compulsory school pupils' use and access to ICT in schools as well as at home was investigated both by a survey study and an interview study. In addition, pupils' general digital competence as well as their skills in searching information were studied in order to gain insight into digital (in)equality. The Swedish school system and its role in conveying such competence was a particular concern. Results are presented in two of the four articles constituting this doctoral thesis.

To gain a wider understanding of the ICT (in)equality phenomenon an international outlook was incorporated into thesis in the form of a systematic literature review. This literature review is presented in the third article of the thesis. The fourth and final study widens the scope even further by analysing the phenomenon in the light of sociological theory. The general aim of the thesis was scrutinised and critically analysed using Nathan Selwyn's construct of Technology Capital, which in turn is derived from Pierre Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital. Technology capital defines both access to and the use of ICT, which of course also implies that ICT indeed has cultural value.

The results of this sociological analysis showed that there does indeed exist a digital inequality amongst the younger generation in Sweden in spite of having easy access to the technology. It is demonstrated that the Swedish school system actually fails its commission. In respect to the use of and access to ICT the school system is not equal and pupils do not receive equal education. Furthermore, the analysis suggested that the task given to the school system is unclear and that the use of a concept such as technological capital is a promising one in gaining further insights into the phenomenon of digital (in)equality. In conclusion, suggestions are also made how the notion of technology capital could be further developed made more precise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: School of Education and Communication , 2014. , 119 p.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar från Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, ISSN 1652-7933 ; 23
Keyword [en]
Digital inequality, digital inclusion, digital divide, technological capital, digital competence, equality in education, compulsory education, secondary education
Keyword [sv]
Digital ojämlikhet, digital inkludering, digitala klyftor, tekniskt kapital, digital kompetens, likvärdig utbildning, grundskola, gymnasieskola
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-22866ISBN: 978-91-628-8880-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-22866DiVA: diva2:681386
Public defence
2014-01-24, Hb116, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-19 Last updated: 2014-08-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. ICT use among 13-year-old Swedish children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICT use among 13-year-old Swedish children
2010 (English)In: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 35, no 1, 15-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish children have grown up in a digital culture, but have internalized information and communication technology (ICT) in different ways and gained most of their knowledge by peer‐based learning. The aim of this study is to give an empirical understanding of patterns of ICT use among Swedish children. The data are collected through a survey including all 13‐year‐old children in a municipality (N = 256). The results show that all children have access to ICT but they use it in various ways. The children’s use of ICT differs in both qualitative and quantitative ways, but there is a lack in basic computer skills as well as seriousness about ICT use as a tool for education and learning. These findings should be seen in relation to Sweden’s ranking as a mature e‐society, and at the same time, the Swedish National Agency for Education asking for more explicit national strategies and guidelines for ICT use in the educational system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2010
Keyword
Children's use of ICT, Digital generation, National ICT guidelines
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-13629 (URN)10.1080/17439880903560936 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-10-25 Created: 2010-10-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Digital inequality in primary and secondary education: findings from a systematic literature review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital inequality in primary and secondary education: findings from a systematic literature review
2014 (English)In: Media and education in the digital age: concepts, assessments, subversions / [ed] Matteo Stocchetto, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2014, 41-62 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2014
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-24421 (URN)978-3-631-65154-4 (ISBN)978-3-653-04437-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-08-25 Created: 2014-08-25 Last updated: 2014-08-25Bibliographically approved
3. Young People’s Information-seeking in School - A Breeding Ground for Digital Inequality?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young People’s Information-seeking in School - A Breeding Ground for Digital Inequality?
2012 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 7, no 2, 117-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes and discusses the digital and information skills of Swedish youth in relation to educational goalsand e-society participation, following pioneering research done by van Dijk, Buckingham, and Enochsson on thissubject. By the findings from a questionnaire and interviews, a diversified picture of information skills and attitudestoward being a part of the e-society emerge — a picture that supports the idea that the school could contribute to theestablishment of digital inequalities among the students.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2012
Keyword
Digital skills, Information-seeking, Digital inequality
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-18429 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-13 Created: 2012-06-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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