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Industrial-scale high power impulse magnetron sputtering of yttria-stabilized zirconia on porous NiO/YSZ fuel cell anodes
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Danish Technological Institute. (Tribology Centre)
Danish Technological Institute. (Tribology Centre)
Danish Technological Institute. (Tribology Centre)
Danish Technological Institute. (Tribology Centre)
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2015 (English)In: SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 281, 150-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are reactively sputter-deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) in an industrial setup on porous NiO/YSZ fuel cell anodes. The influence of deposition pressure, peak power and substrate bias on the deposition rate and film morphology is studied. It is seen that depositing at increasing the deposition pressure from ~370 mPa to ~750 mPa results in a 64 % increase in the deposition rate and denser film. Films are deposited at peak power densities ranging from 0.4 kW/cm2 to 1.1 kW/cm2. By increasing the peak power density the degree of ionization degree of both Ar and sputtered metallic species is significantly increased which results in denser films as open column boundaries are removed. The increase in peak power also results in a significant drop in deposition rate. By combining a peak power density of ~0.6 kW/cm2 with the application of -180 V substrate bias voltage a homogenous and essentially columnless coating can be deposited. These results demonstrate HiPIMS deposition is capable of producing dense, YSZ coatings on porous substrates as needed for solid oxide fuel cell application. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 281, 150-156 p.
Keyword [en]
Physical Vapor deposition (PVD), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), YSZ, HPPMS
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102515DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.09.058ISI: 000366072200019OAI: diva2:678641
Available from: 2013-12-12 Created: 2013-12-12 Last updated: 2016-06-01
In thesis
1. Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia and Gadolinia-Doped Ceria Thin Films for Fuel Cell Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia and Gadolinia-Doped Ceria Thin Films for Fuel Cell Applications
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Solid oxide fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. However, before fuel cell technology can gain a significant share of the electrical power market, the operation temperature needs to be reduced in order to decrease costs and improve the durability of the cells. Application of thin film electrolytes and barrier coatings is a way of achieving this goal.

In this thesis, I have investigated film growth and microstructure of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) thin films deposited by physical vapor deposition. The aim is to make industrially applicable coatings suitable for application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). For this purpose, the coatings need to be thin and dense. YSZ coatings were prepared by pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) in both laboratory- and industrial-scale setups.

Industrial-scale pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of YSZ showed that homogenous coating over large areas was possible. In order to increase film density of the YSZ, HiPIMS was used. By tuning deposition pressure, peak power density and substrate bias voltage it was possible to deposit noncolumnar thin films without voids and cracks as desired for SOFC applications.

CGO coatings were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with the purpose of implementing diffusion barriers to prevent reactions between Sr from the SOFC cathode and the electrolyte. A model system simulating a SOFC was prepared by depositing thin CGO and YSZ layers on cathode material. This setup allowed the study of Sr diffusion by observing SrZrO3 formation using X-ray diffraction while annealing. Electron microscopy was subsequently performed to confirm the results. The study revealed Sr to diffuse along column/grain boundaries in the CGO films but by modifying the film thickness and microstructure the breaking temperature of the barrier could be increased.

CGO thin films were implemented in metal-based SOFC and the influence of film microstructure and thickness on the electrochemical performance of the cell was studied. Cell tests showed that an area specific resistance (ASR) down to 0.27 Ωcm2 could be obtained 650 °C with sputtered CGO barrier layers in combination with a lanthanum strontium cobaltite cathode. In comparison a spin-coated CGO barrier resulted in an ASR value of 0.50 Ωcm2. This shows the high effectiveness of the sputtered barrier in obtaining state-of-the-art performance.

In summary, this work provides fundamental understanding of the deposition and growth of YSZ and CGO thins films and proves the prospective of employing thin film barrier coating in order to obtain high-performing SOFCs.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 63 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1564
National Category
Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102513 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-102513 (DOI)978-91-7519-441-7 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-25, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2013-12-12 Created: 2013-12-12 Last updated: 2015-01-13Bibliographically approved

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Sønderby, SteffenEklund, Per
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