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Vad skulle likabehandling av alla transportslag innebära för kustsjöfarten, miljön och behovet av infrastrukturinvesteringar?
KTH.
2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Just nu åtnjuter sjöfarten en positiv särbehandling genom att i mycket mindre grad än konkurrerande transportslag tvingas ta ansvar för sin miljöpåverkan, men i takt med att miljökraven skärps kommer skillnaden att minska samtidigt som sjötrafiken belastas av nya kostnader. Det finns skäl att förmoda att en fortsatt positiv särbehandling av tåg- och vägtrafiken beträffande andra kostnader i ett sådant läge kommer att leda till en samhällsekonomiskt ineffektiv användning av den samlade transportinfrastrukturen. En faktor av betydelse i sammanhanget är att delar av det svenska bannätet nu trafikeras i så hög omfattning att det börjar bli svårt att lägga in ytterligare tåglägen utan risk för störningar. Vi närmar oss således en situation där det kan bli aktuellt att införa trängselavgifter på vissa banor under en del av dygnet. Ett första steg har redan tagits genom passageavgifter (på låg nivå) i de tre svenska storstäderna under högtrafiktid. Avsikten med projektet är att studera hur godsmarknadens val av transporter påverkas av utformningen av transportslagens samhällsekonomiska kostnadsansvar. Hypotesen är att lika villkor beträffande ansvar för infrastruktur-, olycks- och miljökostnader skulle medföra en överflyttning av gods från främst bana till sjöfart jämfört med nuvarande regler. Det innebär i så fall att behovet av kapacitetshöjande investeringar i järnvägsnätet minskar (allt annat lika).

Abstract [en]

The cost of short-sea shipping on the seas surrounding Sweden will increase considerably after 2015 as a result of the introduction of stringent emission limits on NOx and sulphur. This may give trucks and trains an upper hand in market segments where customers can choose between sea transport and land-based modes. This report shows that the balance would shift in favor of shipping if government gives all modes an equal liability for external costs. With the internalization based on the short-term social marginal costs of infrastructure use, accident risk, and emissions of NOx, sulphur and CO2, rail will be losing market shares. In this scenario the current fairway dues would have to be lowered by at least 90 per cent in order to reflect the short-term marginal cost (rather than variable + fixed costs), while at the same time railway infrastructure charges would quadruple. A surprising result of the calculations is that long-distance freight transport by truck on the main road arteries that compete with short-sea shipping will by 2015 have internalized its short-term social marginal costs based on the current (2011) taxation of vehicles, roads and fuels. This is a result of an increasingly cleaner vehicle fleet and the use of the best roads whose social marginal costs for accidents and road tear are well below average. Equal treatment of all modes with regard to social cost liability will make it possible for short-sea shipping to relieve the national railway system of some of its growing capacity problems that would otherwise have to be resolved by substantial investment in additional rail infrastructure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, S-WoPEc, Scandinavian Working Papers in Economics , 2011. , 46 p.
Series
CTS Working Paper, 2011:14
Keyword [en]
Freight transport, Cost, Tax, External effect, Impact study, Transport infrastructure, Emission, Air pollution, Noise, Accident, Competition, Investment, Transport mode
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Road: Economics; Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Economics; Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Freight transport; Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Freight transport; SAB, Ships and shipping
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-648OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-648DiVA: diva2:669343
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-03-17Bibliographically approved

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