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Pooled cohort study on height and risk of cancer and cancer death
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
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2014 (English)In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 25, no 2, 151-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To assess the association between height and risk of cancer and cancer death.

METHODS: The metabolic syndrome and cancer project is a prospective pooled cohort study of 585,928 participants from seven cohorts in Austria, Norway, and Sweden. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer incidence and death were estimated in height categories and per 5-cm increment for each cancer site using Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.7 years (SD = 7.2), 38,862 participants were diagnosed with cancer and 13,547 participants died of cancer. Increased height (per 5-cm increment) was associated with an increased overall cancer risk in women, HR 1.07 (95 % CI 1.06-1.09), and in men, HR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.03-1.06). The highest HR was seen for malignant melanoma in women, HR 1.17 (95 % CI 1.11-1.24), and in men HR 1.12 (95 % CI 1.08-1.19). Height was also associated with increased risk of cancer death in women, HR 1.03 (95 % CI 1.01-1.16), and in men, HR 1.03 (95 % CI 1.01-1.05). The highest HR was observed for breast cancer death in postmenopausal women (>60 years), HR 1.10 (95 % CI 1.00-1.21), and death from renal cell carcinoma in men, HR 1.18 (95 % CI 1.07-1.30). All these associations were independent of body mass index.

CONCLUSION: Height was associated with risk of cancer and cancer death indicating that factors related to height such as hormonal and genetic factors stimulate both cancer development and progression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014. Vol. 25, no 2, 151-159 p.
Keyword [en]
Body stature, Body height, Epidemiology, Cancer risk, Cohort study
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-82646DOI: 10.1007/s10552-013-0317-7ISI: 000330848600002PubMedID: 24173535OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-82646DiVA: diva2:662085
Available from: 2013-11-06 Created: 2013-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Prospective studies of hormonal and life-style related factors and risk of cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective studies of hormonal and life-style related factors and risk of cancer
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Androgens are important in prostate cancer development but how circulating levels of androgens affect risk of prostate cancer of different aggressiveness is not clear. Being childless has been associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, but it is not clear if this association is causal or a result of residual confounding. Fathering of dizygotic twins, a marker of high fertility, has not been studied in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

Another marker of life-long hormonal exposure is height, which has been associated with increased risk of cancer and cancer death. However, the association to separate cancer sites has not been consistent.

The aims of this thesis were to study hormonal factors (paper I), and proxies of hormonal factors (paper II and III), and risk of prostate cancer; as well as height and risk of cancer and cancer death by separate sites (paper IV).

Methods: Study designs were i) case-control studies, nested within the Västerbotten Intervention Project (paper I), and in Prostate Cancer database Sweden 2.0 (PCBaSe 2.0) (paper II and III), and ii) cohort study, in the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can) (paper IV).

Results, prostate cancer: In paper I, increasing levels of serum androgens were not associated with risk of prostate cancer overall or in tumor risk categories. In paper II, childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer, overall and in all risk categories, compared to fathers, an association which was in part explained by differences in marital status and educational level.  In paper III, fathers of dizygotic twins did not have an increased risk of prostate cancer, either overall or in risk categories, when compared to fathers of singletons.

Results, cancer overall: In paper IV, height was associated with an increased risk of cancer and cancer death overall in both women and men. The strongest association for cancer was to malignant melanoma in both women and men, and for cancer death to post-menopausal breast cancer in women and renal cell carcinoma in men.

Conclusions: These studies indicate that hormonal factors, when studied as serum levels or when studied using proxies of fertility, do not have a major impact on the risk of prostate cancer. The association between height and an increased risk of cancer appears robust for total cancer and cancer death, as well as for several separate cancer sites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2014. 76 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1648
Keyword
prostate cancer, epidemiology, androgens, risk factors, fatherhood status, dizygotic twins, height, cohort, case-control, prospective
National Category
Urology and Nephrology Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Cancer Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88308 (URN)978-91-7601-029-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-05, Bergasalen, Umeå Universitetssjukhus, byggnad 27, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 11 0471Swedish Research Council, 825-2010-5950
Available from: 2014-05-07 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2014-12-09Bibliographically approved

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