Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Infrastructure-free pedestrian localization
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of your own and other's positions are frequently a prerequisite for acting, leading others, and interacting in and with the environment; to retrieve relevant information and to process and interpret it; and to understand, compile, and learn from observations of the surrounding and its dynamics. This holds for humans as well as for machines and systems made for supporting and controlling them. Consequently, systems which automatically provide position information of peoples are of interest and the larger subject area of this thesis. Position can be obtained from well-known infrastructure based systems such as GPS. However, these systems carry obvious drawbacks in their infrastructure dependence which gives them limited coverage and system robustness. By observing our own ability to localize ourselves, it is obvious that localization without infrastructure at with a better (relative) accuracy is achievable. The development over the last decades of sensor and processing hardware and statistical methods have started to make such localization possible. This thesis specifically concerns systems and statistical methods for infrastructure-free localization. The this primarily deals with statistical methods but also describe hardware in terms of high-level system designs.

For many critical applications such as positioning of emergency responders, dismounted soldiers, and security personnel, it is unsuitable for the positioning system to be dependent on infrastructure or prior knowledge about the environment. Consequently, this thesis deals with systems and methods for infrastructure-free and prior-knowledge-free pedestrian localization. The thesis is specifically concerned with statistical methods but will also cover hardware in terms of high-level system designs. The thesis is composed of an introduction followed by a collection of papers which are divided into two parts, each concerning a separate problem area. The introduction motivates and describes the localization problem in general terms and gives a coherent guide to the articles.

The first group of articles together describes an infrastructure-free system for tactical localization of small units of agents. The physical implementation of the localization system carries the name TOR (Tacitcal lOcatoR) and have been tested on fire fighters during realistic smoke diving exercises. This system primarily depends on pedestrian dead-reckoning based on foot-mounted inertial navigation and inter-agent radio ranging. The core parts of the system which are dealt with are: foot-mounted inertial navigation units which provides dead reckoning of individual agents, system structure and estimation algorithms which, based on the dead reckoning and inter-agent ranging, provides estimates of the agent positions, initialization algorithms for the estimation, and a user interface which exploits voice radio communication and 3D-audio to let the agents hear where they have each other.

The second group of articles concerns low-level processing for extraction of spatial information of camera images (video), a prevailing infrastructure-free data source for relating an agent's position to the environment. These articles are focused on formalization and fast implementations of fundamental processing steps. An implementation of scale-space only relying on integer signal representation of image data and simple arithmetic operations is presented. Further, a unifying theory of feature point orientation assignment is derived and a novel method for the same is presented. Thereafter, the small but frequently occuring processing step in which image gradient samples are binned based on their argument, is treated and three fast solutions with varying properties are suggested. Finally, a localization system based on inertial navigation aided by imagery data is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , viii, 37 p.
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133443ISBN: 978-91-7501-906-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-133443DiVA: diva2:661294
Public defence
2013-11-29, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131105

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-01 Last updated: 2013-11-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Cooperative localization by dual foot-mounted inertial sensors and inter-agent ranging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative localization by dual foot-mounted inertial sensors and inter-agent ranging
2013 (English)In: EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, ISSN 1687-6172, E-ISSN 1687-6180, Vol. 164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The implementation challenges of cooperative localization by dual foot-mounted inertial sensors and inter-agent ranging are discussed and work on the subject is reviewed. System architecture and sensor fusion are identified as key challenges. A partially decentralized system architecture based on step-wise inertial navigation and step-wise dead reckoning is presented. This architecture is argued to reduce the computational cost and required communication bandwidth by around two orders of magnitude while only giving negligible information loss in comparison with a naive centralized implementation. This makes a joint global state estimation feasible for up to a platoon-sized group of agents. Furthermore, robust and low-cost sensor fusion for the considered setup, based on state space transformation and marginalization, is presented. The transformation and marginalization are used to give the necessary flexibility for presented sampling based updates for the inter-agent ranging and ranging free fusion of the two feet of an individual agent. Finally, characteristics of the suggested implementation are demonstrated with simulations and a real-time system implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems) Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133469 (URN)10.1186/1687-6180-2013-164 (DOI)
Note

QC 20140114

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Foot-mounted INS for Everybody: An Open-source Embedded Implementation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foot-mounted INS for Everybody: An Open-source Embedded Implementation
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), IEEE , 2012, 140-145 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present an open-source, realtime, embedded implementation of a foot-mounted, zero-velocity-update-aided inertial navigation system. The implementation includes both hardware design and software, uses off-the-shelf components and assembly methods, and features a standard USB interface. The software is written in C and can easily be modified to run user implemented a1gorithlUS. The hardware design and the software are released under permissive open-source licenses and production files, source code, documentation, and further resources areavailable at www.openshoe.org. The reproduction cost for a single unit is below $800, with the inertial measurement unit makingup the bulk ($700). The form factor of the implementation is small enough for it to be integrated in the sole of a shoe. A performance evaluation of the system shows a position errors for short trajectories «100 [m)) of ± 0.2-1 % of the traveled distance, depending on the shape of trajectory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE - ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium, ISSN 2153-358X
Keyword
acceleration measurement, computerised instrumentation, footwear, hardware-software codesign, inertial navigation, peripheral interfaces, public domain software, system buses, system documentation
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101705 (URN)10.1109/PLANS.2012.6236875 (DOI)000309273900019 ()2-s2.0-84866262273 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-0385-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS) Location: Myrtle Beach, SC Date: APR 23-26, 2012
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

© 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

QC 20121001

Available from: 2012-10-01 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2013-11-05Bibliographically approved
3. Recursive Bayesian Initialization of Localization Based on Ranging and Dead Reckoning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recursive Bayesian Initialization of Localization Based on Ranging and Dead Reckoning
2013 (English)In: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 1399-1404 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The initialization of the state estimation in a localization scenario based on ranging and dead reckoning is studied. Specifically, we treat a cooperative localization setup and consider the problem of recursively arriving at a unimodal state estimate with sufficiently low covariance such that covariance based filters can be used to estimate an agent's state subsequently. The initialization of the position of an anchor node will be a special case of this. A number of simplifications/assumptions are made such that the estimation problem can be seen as that of estimating the initial agent state given a deterministic surrounding and dead reckoning. This problem is solved by means of a particle filter and it is described how continual states and covariance estimates are derived from the solution. Finally, simulations are used to illustrate the characteristics of the method and experimental data are briefly presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, ISSN 2153-0858
Keyword
A-particles, Anchor nodes, Bayesian, Cooperative localization, Dead reckoning, Estimation problem, Scenario-based, State estimates
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems) Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133471 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2013.6696532 (DOI)000331367401074 ()2-s2.0-84893755843 (Scopus ID)978-146736358-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, November 3-8, 2013 at Tokyo Big Sight, Japan
Note

QC 20140110

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2014-04-10Bibliographically approved
4. Voice radio communication, pedestrian localization, and the tactical use of 3D audio
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Voice radio communication, pedestrian localization, and the tactical use of 3D audio
2013 (English)In: 2013 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, IPIN 2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, 6817918- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The relation between voice radio communication and pedestrian localization is studied. 3D audio is identified as a linking technology which brings strong mutual benefits. Voice communication rendered with 3D audio provides a potential low secondary task interference user interface to the localization information. Vice versa, location information in the 3D audio provides spatial cues in the voice communication, improving speech intelligibility. An experimental setup with voice radio communication, cooperative pedestrian localization, and 3D audio is presented and we discuss high level tactical possibilities that the 3D audio brings. Finally, results of an initial experiment, demonstrating the effectiveness of the setup, are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2013
Series
International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, ISSN 2162-7347
Keyword
Perception, Tracking
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133472 (URN)10.1109/IPIN.2013.6817918 (DOI)000341663400079 ()2-s2.0-84902133556 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-4043-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), 28-31 October, Montbéliard-Belfort, France, 2013
Note

QC 20131105

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2014-10-21Bibliographically approved
5. Fast scale-space approximation by cascaded box filters and integer signal representation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast scale-space approximation by cascaded box filters and integer signal representation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A method for computationally inexpensive approximation of a set of scale levels in a Gaussian scale-space is presented. Box filters of different widths and orientations are cascaded to approximate the Gaussian kernels. The signal is downsampled at higher scales to reduce the number of samples and thereby the computational cost. Integer signal representation is used throughout the filtering, and the signal is downshifted as required to keep within the numerical range of the representation. The filtering require only add (and subtract) and shift operations to implement. An optimization problem is formulated for designing the filter cascade and a branch-and-bound technique is used to solve it. The level of approximation versus the computational cost is studied and based on a qualitative comparison with state-of-the-art approximation methods, it is concluded that the presented method shows unprecedented low computational cost and unique properties for low cost Gaussian scale-space approximation.

 

National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133474 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2013-11-05Bibliographically approved
6. A unifying approach to feature point orientation assignment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A unifying approach to feature point orientation assignment
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A general structure of an orientation measure for orientation assignment of 2D image feature points is heuristically motivated. The measure is discretized and general approximation methods are presented. Orientation assignment methods found in the literature are shown to exploit special cases of the general measure, which thereby provides a unifying framework for them. An analytical robustness analysis is conducted, giving a number of desirable robustness properties of the measure components. Following this, a detailed treatment of implementation issues such as gradient sampling and binning is given and based on the desirable properties and other implementation considerations, specific measure components with implementations are suggested. Together, this constitutes a novel feature point orientation assignment method, which we have called RAID. We argue that this method is considerably less expensive than comparable methods in the literature, and by means of a quantitative perturbation analysis, a significantly improved orientation assignment repeatability is demonstrated compared with the available methods found in the literature.

 

National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133475 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2013-11-05Bibliographically approved
7. Fast Argument Quantization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast Argument Quantization
2013 (English)In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 30, no 6, 169-172 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aquantized low-resolution argument of a complex number or two-dimensional vector is required in many digital signal processing algorithms. Examples include APSK code demodulation for which it may be used to evaluate the Voronoi diagram; low-level processing for many computer vision methods that exploit histograms of gradient sample arguments, e.g., SIFT and HOG; and phase tracking/frequency estimation for which it may be used as a low-cost phase approximation. Often, such quantized arguments will have to be computed many times and under real-time constraints. Therefore, efficient solutions to these calculations are of interest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Signal Processing Society, 2013
Keyword
Complex number, Digital signal processing algorithms, Low resolution, Phase approximations, Phase tracking, Real time constraints, Voronoi diagrams
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133476 (URN)10.1109/MSP.2013.2276531 (DOI)000328502000022 ()2-s2.0-84887008984 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131105

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
8. Realtime Implementation of Visual-aided Inertial Navigation Using Epipolar Constraints
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Realtime Implementation of Visual-aided Inertial Navigation Using Epipolar Constraints
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), IEEE , 2012, 711-718 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A real-time implementation and the related theory of a visual-aided inertial navigation system are presented. The entire system runs on a standard laptop with off-the-shelf sensory equipment connected via standard interfaces. The visual-aiding is based on epipolar constraints derived from a finite visual memory. The navigational states are estimated with a squareroot sigma-point Kalman filter. An adaptive visual memory based on  statistical coupling is presented and used to store and discard images selectively. Timing and temporal ordering of sensory data are estimated recursively. The computational cost and complexity of the system is described, and the implementation is discussed in terms of code structure, external libraries, and important parameters. Finally, limited performance evaluation results of the system are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE - ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium, ISSN 2153-358X
Keyword
Kalman filters, computational complexity, inertial navigation, sensors, statistical analysis
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101707 (URN)10.1109/PLANS.2012.6236948 (DOI)000309273900092 ()2-s2.0-84866236072 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-0385-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS),23-26 April 2012, Myrtle Beach, SC
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

© 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

QC 20121001

Available from: 2012-10-01 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2013-11-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(32821 kB)8134 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 32821 kBChecksum SHA-512
7057fe0b44e6ad3e0a1e6f06f399e251772d0d94a57fa82d43e3729e8e29fe74b762c57c03b811dfa2a29eb3df10b5f9d053d086ee559dc35dc4dbfd05fd4656
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nilsson, John-Olof
By organisation
Signal Processing
Signal Processing

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 8134 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 776 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf