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Genetic Predisposition and Changes in Dietary Patterns may contribute to increased Development of Type 2 Diabetes in the Chinese Population
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Department of Biology.
2013 (English)MasteroppgaveStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Lifestyle diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), are related to overweight in the western world. Although lower occurrence of overweight has been documented in China compared to western countries, an increase in such lifestyle diseases has been observed during the last decades. The aim of this thesis was to study the relationship between lifestyle and the development of T2D and CVDs in the Chinese population. The results may provide further knowledge concerning lifestyle diseases and may therefore contribute to reduce disease development in the future. The experimental data presented in this thesis was extracted from various research areas within molecular biology, genetics and epidemiology. Asian populations show higher concentrations of the pro-inflammatory mediator PAI-1 and lower concentrations of the anti-inflammatory mediator adiponectin compared to other ethnic groups. These differences suggest that Asians may be genetically predisposed to developing metabolic inflammation, which may increase the risk of developing T2D and CVDs. In China, the inflammation is most likely amplified due to altered nutritional patterns. Urban populations in China have increased rapidly during the last decades. Highly influenced by westernization processes, dietary changes have been introduced to these urban areas. Western diets include high consumption of fat, resulting in high kilocalorie (kcal) intake that might trigger overnutrition. Furthermore, an altered dietary carbohydrate composition has been observed through increased consumption of high glycemic indexed (GI) carbohydrates. The traditionally northern Chinese diet contains more kcal than the southern diet and has a higher GI content. These dietary differences might provide an explanation for higher prevalence of T2D and CVDs observed in north China compared to south China. Genetic changes in utero and during childhood due to the Chinese Famine in the mid1940s has proven to explain a small part of the increased development of T2D in China. Individuals who during early development were subjected to malnutrition and later consume a rich western diet are at increased risk of developing T2D. However, these genetic differences do not explain the disease development in Chinese children and adolescents. The one-child policy has been blamed for the increase as it reduces competition between siblings. None of the results in this thesis support the hypothesis that the one-child family policy is to be blamed for the disease development. Therefore, the main factors contributing to the lifestyle disease development in China appear to be genetic predisposition and dietary changes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutt for biologi , 2013. , 120 p.
URN: urn:nbn:no:ntnu:diva-23291Local ID: ntnudaim:8516OAI: diva2:660424
Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2013-10-29Bibliographically approved

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