Count data modelling and tourism demand
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis consists of four papers concerning modelling of count data and tourism demand. For three of the papers the focus is on the integer-valued autoregressive moving average model class (INARMA), and especially on the ENAR(l) model. The fourth paper studies the interaction between households' choice of number of leisure trips and number of overnight stays within a bivariate count data modelling framework.
Paper [I] extends the basic INAR(1) model to enable more flexible and realistic empirical economic applications. The model is generalized by relaxing some of the model's basic independence assumptions. Results are given in terms of first and second conditional and unconditional order moments. Extensions to general INAR(p), time-varying, multivariate and threshold models are also considered. Estimation by conditional least squares and generalized method of moments techniques is feasible. Monte Carlo simulations for two of the extended models indicate reasonable estimation and testing properties. An illustration based on the number of Swedish mechanical paper and pulp mills is considered.
Paper[II] considers the robustness of a conventional Dickey-Fuller (DF) test for the testing of a unit root in the INAR(1) model. Finite sample distributions for a model with Poisson distributed disturbance terms are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. These distributions are wider than those of AR(1) models with normal distributed error terms. As the drift and sample size, respectively, increase the distributions appear to tend to T-2) and standard normal distributions. The main results are summarized by an approximating equation that also enables calculation of critical values for any sample and drift size.
Paper[III] utilizes the INAR(l) model to model the day-to-day movements in the number of guest nights in hotels. By cross-sectional and temporal aggregation an INARMA(1,1) model for monthly data is obtained. The approach enables easy interpretation and econometric modelling of the parameters, in terms of daily mean check-in and check-out probability. Empirically approaches accounting for seasonality by dummies and using differenced series, as well as forecasting, are studied for a series of Norwegian guest nights in Swedish hotels. In a forecast evaluation the improvements by introducing economic variables is minute.
Paper[IV] empirically studies household's joint choice of the number of leisure trips and the total night to stay on these trips. The paper introduces a bivariate count hurdle model to account for the relative high frequencies of zeros. A truncated bivariate mixed Poisson lognormal distribution, allowing for both positive as well as negative correlation between the count variables, is utilized. Inflation techniques are used to account for clustering of leisure time to weekends. Simulated maximum likelihood is used as estimation method. A small policy study indicates that households substitute trips for nights as the travel costs increase.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2002. , 20 p.
Umeå economic studies, ISSN 0348-1018 ; 584
Time series, Count data, INARMA, Unit root, Aggregation, Forecasting, Tourism, Truncation, Inflation, Simulated maximum likelihood, Bivariate hurdle model.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-82168ISBN: 91-7305-215-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-82168DiVA: diva2:659885
Härtill 4 uppsatser.2013-10-282013-10-282013-10-28Bibliographically approved