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A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. KTH & Stockholm University.
Stockholm University.
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, e74983Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature.

We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 8, no 9, e74983
Keyword [sv]
miljömikrobiologi, metagenomik, ekosystemfunktioner, eutrofiering, Östersjön, sediment
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-20021DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074983ISI: 000326520200065PubMedID: 24086414Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84884517639Local ID: 1169/42/2007:17OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-20021DiVA: diva2:659263
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1169/42/2007:17
Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Microbial Ecosystem Functions Along the Steep Oxygen Gradient of the Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial Ecosystem Functions Along the Steep Oxygen Gradient of the Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Through complex metabolic interactions aquatic microbial life is essential as a driver of ecosystem functions and hence a prerequisite for sustaining plant and animal life in the sea and on Earth. Despite its ecological importance, infor­mation on the complexity of microbial functions and how these are related to environmental conditions is limited. Due to climate change and eutrophication, marine areas facing oxygen depletion are increasing and predicted to continue to do so in the future. Vertically steep oxygen gradients are particularly pronoun­ced in the Baltic Sea. In this thesis, therefore, the ecosystem functions of micro­bial communities were investigated, using metagenomics, to understand how they were distributed along the steep oxygen gradient at the Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, microbial communities from the Lands­ort Deep transect were compared to microbial communities of other marine environments to establish whether the environment at this site resulted in a characteristic community. To reveal what microbial community functions and taxa were active in the anoxic sediment a metatranscriptomic approach was used. Results showed a marked effect of the coupled environmental parameters dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature on distribution of taxa and par­ti­cularly community functions. Microbial communities showed functional capa­cities consistent with a copiotrophic life-style dependent on organic ma­terial sinking through the water column. The eutrophic condition with high organic load was further reflected in the metatranscriptome of the anoxic sedi­ment com­munity, which indicated active carbon mineralisation through ana­erobic hetero­trophic-autotrophic community synergism. New putative linkages between nitro­gen and- sulphur metabolisms were identified at anoxic depths. Further­more, viable Cyanobacteria in the anoxic sediment was evident from the tran­script analyses as another reflection of marine snow. High abundance and expres­­sion of integron integrases were identified as a charac­teristic feature of the Lands­ort Deep communities, and may provide these communities with a mech­an­ism for short-term-adaptation to environmental change. In summary, this thesis clearly documents what impact eutrophication and oxygen depletion have on microbial community functions. Furthermore, it specifically advances the mechanistic insight into microbial processes in anoxic deep-water sediment at both genomic and transcriptional level. Given the predicted progress of oxygen depletion in marine and brackish environments, this work advances information necessary to estimate effects on marine and in particular brackish ecosystem functions where anoxic conditions prevail.

Abstract [sv]

Mikroorganismer är essentiella för fungerande ekosystemfunktioner i akvatiska miljöer och därmed en förutsättning för övrigt växt- och djurliv på vår planet. Trots deras ekologiska nyckelroll är kunskapen om mikroorganismernas funk­tion och komplexitet samt hur dessa är relaterade till miljön begränsad. På grund av eutrofiering och klimatförändringar har marina områden som lider av syrebrist ökat och en ytterligare utbredning av marina och bräckta områden med syrebrist är predicerad i framtiden. Stora områden av Östersjön kännetecknas av vertikala syregradienter med syresatt ytvatten och anoxiskt bottenvatten. I denna avhandling undersöktes därför med metagenomik hur mikrobiella ekosystems funktioner var utbredda längs den vertikala syregradienten i Östersjöns djupaste del, Landsortsdjupet. Dessutom jämfördes de mikrobiella samhällena från Lands­­­ortsdjupet med mikrobiella samhällen från andra marina miljöer för att utröna om den karakteristiska miljön i Landsortsdjupet återspeglade de mikro­biella samhällen som lever där. För att undersöka vilka mikroorganismer samt vilka mikrobiella ekosystemfunktioner som var aktiva i det anoxiska sedimentet i Lands­ortsdjupet användes metatranskriptomik. Resultaten visade en stark kor­re­lation mellan miljöparametrarna syrehalt, salinitet och temperatur och för­del­ningen av mikrobiell taxa och i synnerhet mikrobiell funktion längs Lands­orts­djupets transekt. De mikrobiella samhällena uppvisade en funktionell kapa­citet förenlig med en livsstrategi beroende av organiskt material som sjunker genom vattenkolonnen som en konsekvens av eutrofiering. Eutrofa förhållanden med hög halt av organiskt material var även återspeglad i metatranskriptomet från det anoxiska sedimentet, som indikerade aktiv mineralisering av organiskt kol genom anaerob heterotrof-autotrof synergism. Nya möjliga kopplingar mellan kväve- och svavelmetabolism identifierades i det anoxiska vattnet. Vidare visade resultat från metatranskriptom-analys att livsdugliga cyanobakterier var abun­danta i det mörka och anoxiska sedimentet, vilket även detta kan vara en konse­kvens av sjunkande organiskt material. Hög abundans och hög transkribering av integrongener kunde identifieras som ett karakteristiskt kännetecken hos de mikro­biella samhällena i Landsortsdjupet vilket skulle kunna förse dem med en me­kanism för anpassning till miljöförändringar. Sammanfattningsvis dokumen­terar denna avhandling tydligt vilken påverkan eutrofiering och syrebrist har på mikrobiella funktioner. Dessutom för den specifikt kunskapen om mikrobiella processer i anoxiska djupvattensediment framåt på både genom- och transkrip­tions­nivå. Mot bakgrund av en predicerad ökning av syrebristen i marina mil­jöer, bidrar denna avhandling med information som är viktig för att kunna förutse vilka effekter anoxiska förhållanden kan komma att få på ekosystemfunktioner i marina miljöer och i brackvattenmiljöer i synnerhet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2016. 63 p.
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 125
Keyword
microbial ecology, ecosystem functions, microbial community, bacteria, archaea, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, oxygen gradient, hypoxia, sediment, Baltic Sea
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30910 (URN)1169/42/2007:17 (Local ID)978-91-87843-58-7 (ISBN)978-91-87843-59-4 (ISBN)1169/42/2007:17 (Archive number)1169/42/2007:17 (OAI)
Public defence
2016-11-18, MA636, Alfred Nobels allé 7, Huddinge, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1169/42/2007:17EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 222625
Available from: 2016-10-14 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved

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Thureborn, PetterLundin, DanielSjöling, Sara

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