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Anypath Routing for Reducing Latency in Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing capacity in wireless mesh networks can be achieved by using multiple channels and radios. By using different channels, two nodes can send packets at the same time without interfering with each other. To utilize diversity of available frequency, a channel assignment scheme is required. Hybrid channel assignment is an interesting approach where at least one radio is tuned to a fixed channel for receiving and the remaining interfaces switch their channels dynamically in order to match the receiving channel at the receiving node.

This provides full connectivity, but at the expense of introduced switching costs. Due to hardware limitations it is too costly to switch channels on a per packet basis.

Instead, this thesis proposes an anypath routing and forwarding mechanism in order to allow each node along the route to select the best next hop neighbor on a per packet basis. The routing algorithm finds for each destination a set of next hop candidates and the forwarding algorithm considers the state of the channel switch operation when selecting a next hop candidate. Also, in order to allow latency-sensitive packets to be transmitted before other packets, latency-awareness has been introduced to distinguish e.g. VoIP flows from FTP traffic.

The ideas have been implemented and tested using real-world experiments, and the results show a significant reduction in latency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2013. , 18 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2013:45
Keyword [en]
Wireless Mesh Networks, Anypath Routing, Forwarding, VoIP
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29359ISBN: 978-91-7063-522-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-29359DiVA: diva2:659194
Presentation
2013-12-20, 1B309, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-10-10 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Multi-Channel Anypath Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Channel Anypath Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE Globecom 2010, IEEE Press, 2010, 196-201 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recently, wireless mesh networks have been proposed as a mechanism to provide alternative broadband wireless internet access. The usage of multiple radios transmitting at diverse frequency bands allows a significant increase in the capacity of such networks. However, popular Hybrid Channel Assignment strategies, which use a fixed interface for receiving and a switchable interface for transmitting to neighbor nodes, suffer from large delay and jitter due to the accumulated switching overhead over multiple hops. In this paper, we propose a novel routing mechanism for such hybrid multi-radio multichannel mesh networks based on the anypath paradigm. In our approach, the routing layer maintains for each destination at each hop a set of candidate forwarders, where each neighbor is tuned to a different channel. A novel layer 2.5 forwarding and scheduling algorithm decides then for each packet individually, which actual neighbor to forward the packet to, in order to minimize the overall delay. We implemented the selected approach using extensions to OLSR. An evaluation in KAUMesh test bed shows for specific scenarios that AP-OLSR reduces average delay with up to 70% compared to standard OLSR while also reducing both average and maximum jitter by 60% and 45% respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2010
Keyword
KAUMesh, KKStiftelsen
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-10087 (URN)978-1-4244-8863-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Globecom 2010 Workshop on Heterogeneous, Multi-hop Wireless and Mobile Networks (HeterWMN 2010), December 6th 2010, Miami, USA
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Performance Evaluation of the Anypath Routing and Forwarding Mechanism AP-OLSR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation of the Anypath Routing and Forwarding Mechanism AP-OLSR
2013 (English)In: MSWiM '13 Proceedings of the 16th ACM international conference on Modeling, analysis & simulation of wireless and mobile systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, 81-90 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) consist of several small routers relaying packets wirelessly toward the destination or the Internet. A dense deployment enables the rapid creation of wireless access networks at a reasonable cost. The capacity of a wireless mesh network can be increased by using a diverse set of channels to allow simultaneous transmissions without causing interference. An interesting approach is to use one fixed wireless network interface for receiving and at least one switchable interface for sending. However, such a channel assignment suffers from switching overhead.

In order to minimize the channel switching latency, we have developed a novel packet routing and forwarding strategy, AP-OLSR, which uses multiple next hop candidates tuned to different channels. When forwarding a packet, nodes pick the neighbor which is on a channel that gives a good balance between local switching overhead and global path quality.

In this paper, we present a thorough evaluation of AP-OLSR with scenarios involving both single and multiple gateways, as well as single and competing flows. The evaluation shows that AP-OLSR can improve performance in both latency and throughput.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29966 (URN)10.1145/2507924.2507934 (DOI)978-1-4503-2353-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The 16th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM’13), Barcelona, November 3 to 8,2013
Available from: 2013-11-06 Created: 2013-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Latency Aware Anypath Routing and Channel Scheduling for Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latency Aware Anypath Routing and Channel Scheduling for Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks
2014 (English)In: IEEE WCNC'14 Track 3 (Mobile and Wireless Networks), IEEE, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless mesh network (WMN), radio nodes that form a mesh topology, is an interesting architectural candidate for the future wireless Internet. A dense access network can rapidly be deployed at a reasonable cost because there is no need to wire the mesh access points. However, WMNs typically do not perform well with latency-sensitive data traffic, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), due to restricted bandwidth. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and evaluation of LA-APOLSR for hybrid WMNs, where mesh nodes have two radios; a fixed radio for receiving and a switchable radio which rapidly changes channels to send to neighbor nodes. The key novelty of our approach is to use anypath routing for latency-sensitive traffic while normal traffic is treated using single path routing. Also, we develop a novel queuing strategy which prioritizes latency-sensitive traffic. A detailed evaluation using KAUMesh, an in-house multi-radio wireless mesh testbed, shows a reduction in latency and packet loss for VoIP traffic without negatively impacting competing TCP background traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference : Proceeding, ISSN 1525-3511
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29965 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2014.6952775 (DOI)00039291240042 ()978-1-4799-3083-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 6-9 April 2014, Istanbul
Available from: 2013-11-06 Created: 2013-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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