Emerging knowledge of regulatory roles of D-amino acids in bacteria
2011 (English)In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS), ISSN 1420-682X, E-ISSN 1420-9071, Vol. 68, no 5, 817-831 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The D-enantiomers of amino acids have been thought to have relatively minor functions in biological processes. While L-amino acids clearly predominate in nature, D-amino acids are sometimes found in proteins that are not synthesized by ribosomes, and D-Ala and D-Glu are routinely found in the peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria. Here, we review recent findings showing that D-amino acids have previously unappreciated regulatory roles in the bacterial kingdom. Many diverse bacterial phyla synthesize and release D-amino acids, including D-Met and D-Leu, which were not previously known to be made. These noncanonical D-amino acids regulate cell wall remodeling in stationary phase and cause biofilm dispersal in aging bacterial communities. Elucidating the mechanisms by which D-amino acids govern cell wall remodeling and biofilm disassembly will undoubtedly reveal new paradigms for understanding how extracytoplasmic processes are regulated as well as lead to development of novel therapeutics.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 68, no 5, 817-831 p.
D-amino acid, racemase, stationary phase, peptidoglycan, biofilm, regulation
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81861DOI: 10.1007/s00018-010-0571-8ISI: 000287243400006PubMedID: 21161322OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-81861DiVA: diva2:658605