Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
"Share weather": Design and evaluation of a new concept for sharing weather information
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Already centuries ago, humans had observed the weather in their everyday lives, seeking ways to understand, comprehend, and predict it. Until the present day, weather has had tremendous impacts on our lives and with climate change human civilizations as well. With new media technologies weather constitutes a part of the information services used by many residents of modern cities, people and businesses worldwide.

The rise of Web 2.0, a cyberspace where individuals may connect and interact under new premises, bridging the size of weather systems, creates new opportunities to share, and potentially improve, weather information. This thesis develops a concept “share weather”, based on individuals who share local weather information using interactive media technologies. The concept is empirically tested in eight papers, and, finally, evaluated in the summary of the compilation thesis. Since it explores a new research field, the thesis develops a framework for studying “share weather” based on several theories on motivation and participation in networks. Key issues are associated with accuracy of user-generated observations of weather, methods and design used to employ them, and estimating the potential levels of user contributions. The focus of this thesis lies on motivation theory and design of a “share weather” artifact.

Drawing on prior research on online networks, a model for studying “share weather” is constructed by merging several theories, with the aim of studying the problem from both the individual perspective, and the relationships and structures created by ties and interactions. In addition, the thesis attempts to thoroughly investigate the context of “share weather”, in order to contribute new knowledge to research on online networks, whereas a sustainability perspective is added and associated with the information domain. In order to test the feasibility of the “share weather” concept, several empirical studies based on a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analysis and design research science methodology were conducted during 2008-2011. The studies included six surveys and 17 interviews, involving four different user groups: over 440 traffic-interested individuals who received a weather service, 60 schoolchildren, 20 patients at a dental clinic, and 50 students. A separate study on African farmers was also analyzed.

The findings of this thesis confirmed that, in online networks, individuals are often driven by intrinsic rewards, but this thesis highlights the strong effects of interactions and reciprocity of receiving useful information (weather forecasts) as rewards. In order to capture the range of drives of different instrumentality that might occur, in particular in networks for knowledge creation, a holistic approach can be recommended, where a larger scale of instrumentality is applied when studying online networks for knowledge creation.

Other results, acquired by studying accuracy of user-generated observations, pointed at the powerful abilities possessed by all humans when they perceive weather through their senses. Sharing weather information can be realized using simple methods based on the human eye and perception. Collection methods, based on pictures and predefined text messages inspired by methods used previously in history, can easily be integrated with different interactive media technologies: web, mobile technology, and SMS.

Based on the empirical results and design research methodology, the thesis concludes that “share weather” can contribute to improved weather information. Moreover, it is also suggested that “share weather” might serve some additional goals. The environmental challenges of the future imply that weather will become even more important and that active participation and information sharing is requested at all levels. Based on learning and social processes that can be activated in online networks, “share weather” might potentially contribute to increased public participation in environmental issues.

Abstract [sv]

Sedan urminnes tider har människan observerat vädret i sin vardag, i ständig strävan efter förklaringar, förståelse och dess förutsägelse. Fram till dagens komplexa samhälle har vädret genomsyrat våra liv. Det kan ibland sätta djupa avtryck i vardagen, och med växande miljöhot finns en risk att vädret även kan lämna betydande avtryck på vår civilisation och utveckling. Med hjälp av meditekniken, framför allt nya medier, har väderinformationen en given plats var individs vardag i det moderna samhället där en mängd vädertjänster för konsumenter och företag florerar.

Web 2.0 breder ut sig i en närmast oändlig virtuell värld där individer under helt nya förutsättningar nu obehindrat kan interagera med varandra. I den nya medieteknikens värld kan de interaktioner som sker mellan privatpersoner för första gången övervinna avstånd större än de fysiska avstånd som vädersystemen rör sig inom och vilka definierar dess processer. Här uppstår nya möjligheter att dela, och potentiellt även förbättra, väderinformationen. Denna avhandling utvecklar konceptet ”share weather”, baserat på individer som, med hjälp av modern interaktiv medieteknik, utväxlar väderinformation. Avhandlingen testar detta koncept empiriskt i åtta vetenskapliga artiklar i syfte att utvärdera konceptet ”share weather” i denna sammanfattning. Utforskning av ett nytt område kräver viss ny teori, som, inspirerat av flera existerande teorier om nätverk, härmed utvecklas och presenteras i form av ett ramverk för studie av ”share weather” konceptet och motivation att bidra användargenererad information. Nyckelfrågorna rör: kvalitet och noggrannhet, metoder och design för praktisk realisering, samt uppskattning av potentiella volymer av användargenererade väderobservationer. Avhandlingen designar en ”share weather” artefakt och utvecklar ny teori rörande motivation inom denna kontext. 

Baserat på tidigare vetenskapliga studier och teorier om nätverk tar avhandlingen fram en lämplig modell för utforskning av ”share weather”, med krav på både ett användarcentrerat perspektiv och ett större strukturellt perspektiv som fångar effekterna av olika interaktioner, inbördes länkar och relationer. En viktig målsättning är att förstå kontexten av ”share weather” i syfte att bidra till forskningsområdet Medieteknik och vår kunskap om nätverk. Under det lyfts viktiga hållbarhetsaspekter fram genom att betrakta hållbarhet som en egen dimension av forskningen och granska vädret som informationsdomän. De empiriska studierna bygger på tester som utfördes under 2008-2011, kombination av kvalitativ och kvantitativ analys samt designvetenskap och -metodik. Testerna omfattade 17 intervjuer och cirka sex enkäter som involverade fyra olika användargrupper: över 440 trafikanter som fick vädervarningar via SMS, 60 skolbarn, 20 patienter vid en dentalklinik och 50 studenter. Ytterligare en studie var baserad på data från tester med afrikanska jordbrukare. De empiriska studierna behandlade motivation och drivkrafter, kvalitetsaspekter samt design och utvärdering av en “share weather” artefakt.

Detta arbete bekräftar tidigare forskning som understryker betydelsen av inre drivkrafter, medan avhandlingen även finner andra uttalade drivkrafter kopplade till interaktioner och belöningar i form av användbar information (väderprognoser). I syfte att fånga flera olika källor av potentiella drivkrafter som kan uppstå i nätverk som genererar ”kunskap”, konstruerar avhandlingen ett ramverk bestående av en bred skala av motivationer av olika ursprung för studier av nätverk för utbyte av nyttig information och kunskapsgenerering.

Avhandlingen kunde också dra slutsatser rörande noggrannheten av användargenererade väderobservationer; där den slående förmågan hos människan att med hög noggrannhet observera sin närmaste miljö lyftes fram. Datainsamling kan ske genom fördefinierade textbeskrivningar och bilder, med inspiration hämtad från klassiska metoder med lång tradition av väderdatainsamling. Dessa kan integreras med interaktiva medieteknologier: webben, smarta telefoner och SMS.

Utifrån dessa resultat drar denna avhandling slutsatsen att ”share weather” kan bidra till förbättrad väderinformation. Utöver detta kan viktiga hållbarhetsaspekter, karakteristiska för väderinformation, belysas. I en tid av svåra miljöutmaningar finns ett uttalat behov av bred uppslutning och engagemang i miljöfrågor inklusive informationsutbyte. Medan detta kan vara svårt att realisera i praktiken, teoretiserar denna avhandling kring möjligheterna att använda ”share weather” i arbetet med vissa av dessa mål. De sociala och lärandeprocesser som kan aktiveras i virtuella nätverk kan här komma att spela en viktig roll. Avhandlingen föreslår att ”share weather” potentiellt kan bidra till ökat deltagande hos allmänheten och därmed bidra till ökad miljömedvetenhet och -engagemang.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 219 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2013:10
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131442ISBN: 978-91-7-501-776-1 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-131442DiVA: diva2:656242
Public defence
2013-10-25, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-10-15 Last updated: 2013-10-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Governmental Services and Social Media: When Weather Becomes Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governmental Services and Social Media: When Weather Becomes Global
2010 (English)In: IADIS International Conference e-Society / [ed] Piet Kommers and Pedro Isaías, 2010, 103-114 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The first weather services commenced 150 years ago as small networks of telegraphic stations exchanged weather information in order to provide storm warnings. For larger scale operations, development of weather services and meteorology as a science, larger investments were necessary. The weather industry was shaped by the industrial information economy and for a long period of time dominated by governmental services, with the governmental sector as the sole investor. Eventually a new role – that of service providers – developed. However, different data access policies developed in the U.S. and Europe, resulting in widely different roles of the same agents, impacting local weather markets. Social media technology and changed communication practices of the 21st century, with millions of potential weather observation points, is here hypothesized to impact governmental services while re-shaping the market for weather and alert services. Additionally, the weather information market is transforming from a high entry barrier market to offering more sophisticated tools and data at low cost. The rise of new, and in particular social, media will inevitably impact the roles of different agents of the present weather market. The paper performs an analysis of the weather market and its societal benefits under different conditions and role distributions, and finally develops several future scenarios following from the inclusion of social media as an agent in the weather market.

Keyword
Weather, Governmental services, Meteorology, Social media, Scenarios
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50420 (URN)978-972-8939-07-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IADIS International Conference e-Society. Porto, Portugal. March 18-21, 2010
Note
QC 20111208Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-12-05 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
2. Customization by Sharing Weather Observations: A Study on Winter Road Weather Warnings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customization by Sharing Weather Observations: A Study on Winter Road Weather Warnings
2009 (English)In: 5th World Conference on Mass Customization and Personalization, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Weather information is crucial to weather-dependent businesses. Consequences of weather also affect daily life. Societal and environmental savings can be made, if providing weather information in-time due to users’ exact needs. Studies on on-road behaviour show that people usually do not adjust their behaviour to adverse weather, even when acquired information about coming weather events. A new customization model is here suggested to be of major importance for raising the awareness about weather. Along with recent developments on communication technologies, a number of areas of interest for humankind are challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting, processing and distributing information, realising the opportunities offered by participatory culture. The new customization model provides more reliable and accurate weather information, combining collective intelligence with a new approach within weather service development based on not only the weather information itself but the user’s recent weather experiences. The model was tested as road weather warning messages were provided during winter season 2008/09 to 71 users in Stockholm through SMS, e-mail and the web. The experiment created a community of people with interest in traffic and weather information - a starting point for a future collaborative, user-generated weather observation network.

Keyword
Weather, Information, Customization, Warning, Road, Collaboration, Observation, User-generated, Media technology
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50417 (URN)
Conference
5th World Conference on Mass Customization and Personalization. Helsinki. October 4-8 2009
Note
QC 20111208Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-12-05 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
3. Collaborative Observations of Weather: A Weather Information Sharers’ Community of Practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative Observations of Weather: A Weather Information Sharers’ Community of Practice
2010 (English)In: 6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies, WEBIST 2010, 2010, 392-399 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Beside occasional disastrous impacts of weather, weather also affects daily life. Societal and environmental challenges of the future include both providing customized weather information in-time due to users’ needs, and detecting climate change and its impacts on land and ecosystems. The accuracy of weather and climatic information is, however, limited by spatial and temporal borders that need to be overriden. Also, weather information services cannot be fully customized, a problem arising from the spatial inaccuracy of weather forecasts and observations. Here, the role of social media, collective and civic intelligence and crowd sourcing should be investigated. This paper envisions a community of weather-interested users that provide usable observations of weather and environmental change, and presents a web-based interface for this community as a new method to collect weather and climatic information. User-generated weather observations can be processed based on principles of collective intelligence and co-creation, in order to improve, customize and personolize weather information.

Keyword
Weather, Forecast, Co-creation, Observation, Climate change, Community, Collective intelligence
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50422 (URN)2-s2.0-77956296637 (Scopus ID)978-989674025-2 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies, WEBIST 2010. Valencia. 7 April 2010 - 10 April 2010
Note
QC 20111208Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-12-05 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
4. Improving Weather and Climatic Information Quality with User-generated Observations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving Weather and Climatic Information Quality with User-generated Observations
2011 (English)In: 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-44 2010, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we suggest that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data – observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment, performed by individuals. A general model illustrating individual time resources is introduced, in order to map the two studied groups, i.e. school children and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions, and to further generalize the results to other groups in the society, regarding the potential role of the individual to produce valuable information beneficial to the society.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50424 (URN)10.1109/HICSS.2011.238 (DOI)2-s2.0-79952951368 (Scopus ID)
Conference
44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Koloa, Kauai, HI. January 4-7 2011
Note
QC 20111208Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-12-05 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
5. Web Weather 2.0: Improving Weather Information with User-generated Observations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Web Weather 2.0: Improving Weather Information with User-generated Observations
2013 (English)In: AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1944-3900, E-ISSN 1944-3900, Vol. 5, no 1, 28-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introducing web weather 2.0, this paper suggests that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data through observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment performed by individuals. Collecting data from individuals is here suggested for improving weather data currently used by weather research centers and practitioners. Extending these current sets of weather data by using web 2.0 may address some issues stated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) regarding spatial and temporal resolutions of meteorological data including knowledge on different processes between the air and other environmental systems. To test the concept of web weather 2.0, the usability of weather data collected from individuals and the expected quantities of such data need to be determined. In addition, collection methods should be developed. Aiming at the design of an artifact that can meet these needs, this paper presents some important steps of the design process of a “share weather” system, including several demonstrations and experiments performed on different user groups, i.e. school children performing weather observations as a part of their daily tasks and education, and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions. This paper provides new knowledge about user-generated observations of weather, including quality and motivation to contribute, and guidance on how future systems for collection of environmental data from individuals may be created. After testing the feasibility of the designed “share weather” artifact, we conclude that the potential role of individuals in producing valuable information beneficial to society should be considered within several branches of environmental sciences as well as policy-making.

National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120326 (URN)
Note

QC 20130603

Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
6. Trust-networks for changing driver behaviour during severe weather
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trust-networks for changing driver behaviour during severe weather
2013 (English)In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 7, no 4, 415-424 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies on on-road behaviour imply that designing user-centred services is important for raising awareness about severe weather and adverse road conditions. Along with the developments of new communication technologies and practices, the research area of ITS is challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting and distributing traffic weather information. This study presents two methods for potential improvements and personalisation of traffic weather information. The methods were demonstrated and evaluated by 440 respondents in Stockholm. Weather alerts were sent by SMS 12-48 h, up to a week, prior to the occurrence of severe weather events during 2008-2010. The service was personalised because of assumptions regarding perception and memory of weather, including user's recent observations. The second aspect of potential improvement was the introduction of a social network component, including user-generated local weather observations. The impact of the service was evaluated in a longitudinal study through a series of questionnaires on user behaviour and evaluation of the service. The combination of the two methods proved efficient as the amount of changed decisions was of considerable amplitude. A correlation between time of exposure and changed decisions implies that social components and interactivity may be a powerful tool in traffic weather services and ITS.

Keyword
automated highways, driver information systems, environmental science computing, social networking (online), trusted computing, trust-networks, driver behaviour, on-road behaviour, user-centred services, severe weather awareness, road conditions, communication technologies, ITS, trafflc weather information distribution, trafflc weather information collection, Stockholm, weather alerts, weather memory, user recent observations, social network component, user-generated local weather observations, user behaviour, service evaluation, traffic weather services
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131390 (URN)10.1049/iet-its.2012.0042 (DOI)000328702400006 ()2-s2.0-84898428535 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140121. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
7. Climate Information Crowdsourcing – A Bottom-up Practice for Sustainability and Growth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate Information Crowdsourcing – A Bottom-up Practice for Sustainability and Growth
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on e-Society / [ed] Piet Kommers and Pedro Isaías, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Climate change is a manifestation of globalization of environmental problems. Future challenges include global perspectives and policies addressing growth, sustainability, and equality at the same time. Recent developments within communication technologies, raising mass communication to a global level, may be regarded as an opportunity for new practices. This paper presents a bottom-up activity for sustainability, growth and equality, based on organized performances of citizens on very local level, while contributing to collection of climatic data requested by the global community. By conducting a comparative study between groups of children and adults from Sweden, and a second case of farmers in Sudan, all providing local weather information, this paper argues that crowdsourcing of climate data can make contributions to important climate data, environmental policy-making, sustainability, and public participation, while creating economic value and benefits to traditionally unequal groups, empowered while offering services – collection of environmental data - of value to those who are in power.

Keyword
Weather, Climate, Crowdsourcing, Participation, User-generated, Monitoring
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50425 (URN)978-972-8939-46-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IADIS International Conference on e-Society. Avila, Spain. March 10-13 2011.
Note
QC 20111208Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-12-05 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
8. Why share weather?: Motivational model for “share weather” online communities and three empirical studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why share weather?: Motivational model for “share weather” online communities and three empirical studies
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concept of “weatherwikis”- web 2.0 platforms for sharing weather information between individuals – is faced with several challenges. While some studies confirm satisfactory reliability of user-generated weather information, sources of motivations to contribute are yet unexplored. This paper provides a theoretical framework for weatherwikis, based on social capital theory, and three empirical studies that explore different contextual sources of motivation, of which compensation and ideology may be considered most interesting with the background of current motivational theories on networks of practice. The paper provides some results that, in contrast to established theories and findings on motivations driving networks of practice, suggest that extrinsic motivations may be essential, beside the recognized importance of social acceptance (e.g. enjoyment).

National Category
Media and Communications Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131387 (URN)10.1109/HICSS.2013.26 (DOI)2-s2.0-84875492047 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Share weather(2384 kB)1187 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2384 kBChecksum SHA-512
36be454d0d5c02fd9255b1de5693d115872df20c2dd49e5bff45dfe7c3af201570aaa57850069309361bf8f4e9ff4b73459f504bfd8754790516acbab671ef81
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Elevant, Katarina
By organisation
Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID
Interaction Technologies

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 1187 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 616 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf