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Towards elimination of airborne particles from rail traffic
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. (KTH railway group)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the investigation of wear particles from rail transport started in the late 1910s, the high mass concentrations of these particles have prompted concern among researchers interested in air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because relevant knowledge is still missing. This thesis provides knowledge of airborne wear particles originating from rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristic parameters, such as size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology, were investigated in the field and in laboratory tests. We also discuss means to mitigate non-exhaust emissions, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various test set-ups in the seven appended journal papers:Paper A reviews recent studies of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from rail vehicles. The results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions presented in this literature are summarized in this paper.Paper B summarizes the results of field tests we conducted. The effects of curve negotiation and braking under different real conditions were investigated in a field test in which on-board measurements were made. The elemental composition and morphology of the particles emitted and their potential sources were also investigated.Paper C describes how a pin-on-disc machine can be used to reproduce real operating conditions during mechanical train braking in a controlled laboratory setting. The results were validated by comparing the field test results with the results of laboratory studies.Paper D presents comprehensive results of laboratory studies of airborne particles from different braking materials. A new index is introduced in this paper, which can be used as a quantitative metric for assessing airborne wear particle emission rates.Paper E describes the effects of using various friction modifiers and lubricants on the characteristics of airborne particles from wheel–rail contact under lubricated and unlubricated conditions.Paper F reports work to simulate thermoelastic instability in the cast-iron braking material. We simulated the fluctuation of the flash temperature by considering the temperature dependency of the material properties and the transformation of the contact state due to thermomechanical phenomena and wear.Paper G reviews new full- and sub-scale measurements of non-exhaust emissions from ground transport. The advantages and disadvantages of on-board measurements, pin-on-disc tests, dynamometer tests, and test rig studies are discussed in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 37 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2013:11
Keyword [en]
Airborne, brake block, brake pad, railway, subway, TEI, wheel–rail, wear
National Category
Tribology
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131372ISBN: 978-91-7501-881-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-131372DiVA: diva2:655902
Public defence
2013-11-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131025

Available from: 2013-10-25 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2013-10-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review
2013 (English)In: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 43, no 23, 2211-2244 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Particle emissions are a drawback of rail transport. This work is a comprehensive presentation of recent research into particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are considered when examining particle characteristics such as  PM10, and PM2.5 concentration levels, size, morphology, composition, as well as adverse health effects, current legislation, and available and proposed solutions for reducing such emissions. High concentration levels in enclosed rail traffic environments are reported and some toxic effects of the particles. We find that only a few limited studies have examined the adverse health effects of non-exhaust particle emissions and that no relevant legislation exists. Thus further research in this area is warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
Airbone particles, Brake dust, Exhaust, Non-exhaust, Railways, Subway, Wear
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37518 (URN)10.1080/10643389.2012.685348 (DOI)000326353100001 ()2-s2.0-84880206310 (Scopus ID)
Note

This is an electronic version of an article published in Critical reviews in environmental science and technology. Critical reviews in environmental science and technology is available online at: www.tandfonline.com.

Updated from submitted to published.

QC 20130116

Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train
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2012 (English)In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, no 1, 95-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Sage Publications, 2012
Keyword
airborne particles, elemental content, morphology, rail transport
National Category
Tribology Applied Mechanics Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37515 (URN)10.1177/0954409711408774 (DOI)000299485900008 ()2-s2.0-84858320471 (Scopus ID)
Projects
F6521
Note

QC 20120226.

SAGE Best Paper in 2012

Available from: 2012-02-27 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2013-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs
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2011 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, 93-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on the wear mechanisms in order to find means of controlling the number and size distribution of airborne particles. In this regard, a series of full-scale field tests and laboratory tests with a pin-on-disc machine have been conducted. The morphology and the matter of particles, along with their size distribution and concentration, have been studied. The validity of results from the pin-on-disc simulation has been verified by the field test results. Results show an ultra-fine peak for particles with a diameter size around 100 nm in diameter, a dominant fine peak for particles with a size of around 350 nm in diameter, and a coarse peak with a size of 3-7 μm in diameter. Materials such as iron, copper, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, antimony, and zinc have been detected in the nano-sized particles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
railway brake pads, airborne particles, wear
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37510 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2011.04.013 (DOI)000297902500015 ()2-s2.0-82455208926 (Scopus ID)
Note

Selected papers from 14th Nordic Symposium on Tribology, NORDTRIB 2010. Updated from Submitted to Published.

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Wear. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in WEAR, VOL 273, ISSUE 1, (17 June 2011), DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2011.04.013.

QC 20111221

Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, 18-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
airborne particles, railway, wear, brake pad, brake block
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37516 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2012.01.016 (DOI)000303639400002 ()2-s2.0-84861692320 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120528

Available from: 2012-03-07 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Pin-on-disc study of the effects of railway friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pin-on-disc study of the effects of railway friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact
2013 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 60, 136-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of wheel–rail interaction is crucial to wheel and rail maintenance. In this interaction, some of theworn-off material is transformed into airborne particles. Although such wear is well understood, few studiestreat the particles generated. We investigated friction modifiers' effects on airborne particles characteristicsgenerated in wheel-rail contacts in laboratory conditions. Pin-on-disc machine testing with a round-head pinloaded by a dead weight load 40 N simulated maximum contact pressure over 550 MPa. Airborne particlecharacteristics were investigated in dry contacts and in ones lubricated with biodegradable rail grease andwater- and oil-based friction modifiers. The number of particles declined with the grease; the number ofultrafine particles increased with the water-based friction modifier, mainly due to water vaporization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Airborne particles, Lubricant, Railway, Wear
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering Nano Technology
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104664 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2012.11.013 (DOI)000315550700019 ()2-s2.0-84870703141 (Scopus ID)
Projects
F6521
Note

QC 20121128

Available from: 2012-12-07 Created: 2012-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
6. Temperature and thermo-elastic instability of tread braking friction materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature and thermo-elastic instability of tread braking friction materials
Show others...
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Tribology Applied Mechanics
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-109496 (URN)
Conference
CM2012
Note

QC 20160622

Available from: 2013-01-06 Created: 2013-01-06 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved
7. Technical note: Experiences of studying airborne wear particles from road and rail transport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technical note: Experiences of studying airborne wear particles from road and rail transport
2013 (English)In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, Vol. 13, no 4, 1161-1169 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Airborne particles and their adverse effects on air quality have been recognized by humans since ancient times. Current exhaust emission legislations increase the relative contribution of wear particles on the PM levels. Consequently, wearbased particle emissions from rail and road transport have raised concerns as ground transportation is developing quickly. Although scientific research on airborne wear-based particles started in 1909, there is almost no legislation that control the generation of wear-based particles. In addition, there is no accepted and approved standard measurement technique for monitoring and recording particle characteristics. The main objective of this study is to review recent experimental work in this field and to discuss their set-ups, the sampling methods, the results, and their limitations, and to propose measures for reducing these limitations.

Keyword
Airborne particles, measurement, non-tailpipe, non-exhaust, wear
National Category
Tribology Environmental Engineering
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-109495 (URN)10.4209/aaqr.2012.10.0295 (DOI)000323893300002 ()2-s2.0-84880591966 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130802

Available from: 2013-01-06 Created: 2013-01-06 Last updated: 2013-10-25Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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