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Faults and their influence on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7427-2584
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increase of electronics in road vehicles comes along with a broad variety of possibilitiesin terms of safety, handling and comfort for the users. A rising complexityof the vehicle subsystems and components accompanies this development and has tobe managed by increased electronic control. More potential elements, such as sensors,actuators or software codes, can cause a failure independently or by mutually influencingeach other. There is a need of a structured approach to sort the faults from avehicle dynamics stability perspective.This thesis tries to solve this issue by suggesting a fault classification method and faulttolerantcontrol strategies. Focus is on typical faults of the electric driveline and thecontrol system, however mechanical and hydraulic faults are also considered. Duringthe work, a broad failure mode and effect analysis has been performed and the faultshave been modeled and grouped based on the effect on the vehicle dynamic behaviour.A method is proposed and evaluated, where faults are categorized into different levelsof controllability, i. e. levels on how easy or difficult it is to control a fault for the driver,but also for a control system.Further, fault-tolerant control strategies are suggested that can handle a fault with acritical controllability level. Two strategies are proposed and evaluated based on thecontrol allocation method and an electric vehicle with typical faults. It is shown thatthe control allocation approaches give less critical trajectory deviation compared to noactive control and a regular Electronic Stability Control algorithm.To conclude, this thesis work contributes with a methodology to analyse and developfault-tolerant solutions for electric vehicles with improved traffic safety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , x, 54 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2013:48
Keyword [en]
fault classification, vehicle dynamics, electric vehicle, failure, fault-tolerant control, reconfiguration, fault handling
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131213OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-131213DiVA: diva2:654994
Presentation
2013-10-18, Hugin, Teknikringen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131010

Available from: 2013-10-10 Created: 2013-10-09 Last updated: 2013-10-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fault-tolerant vehicle design is an emerging inter-disciplinary research domain, which is of increasedimportance due to the electrification of automotive systems. The goal of fault-tolerant systems is to handleoccuring faults under operational condition and enable the driver to get to a safe stop. This paperpresents results from an extended survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design. It aims to provide a holisticview on the fault-tolerant aspects of a vehicular system. An overview of fault-tolerant systems in generaland their design premises is given as well as the specific aspects related to automotive applications. Thepaper highlights recent and prospective development of vehicle motion control with integrated chassiscontrol and passive and active fault-tolerant control. Also, fault detection and diagnosis methods arebriefly described. The shift on control level of vehicles will be accompanied by basic structural changeswithin the network architecture. Control architecture as well as communication protocols and topologiesare adapted to comply with the electrified automotive systems. Finally, the role of regulations andinternational standardization to enable fault-tolerant vehicle design is taken into consideration.

Keyword
reliability, safety, wheel hub motor, diagnosis, control system, fault-tolerant control
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98811 (URN)2-s2.0-84877594122 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th Electric Vehicle Symposium, (EVS26), Los Angeles, CA, May 6-9, 2012
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

Qc 20120730

Available from: 2012-07-30 Created: 2012-07-03 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
2. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles
2014 (English)In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 52, no 5, 704-732 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keyword
Vehicle safety, vehicle dynamics, fault analysis, fault classification, electric vehicles, ISO 26262
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131222 (URN)10.1080/00423114.2014.889317 (DOI)000337583100006 ()2-s2.0-84901643352 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140509. Updated from manuscript to article in journal

Funder: Swedish Hybrid vehicle Center

Available from: 2013-10-10 Created: 2013-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Fault-Tolerant Control of Electric Vehicles with In-Wheel Motors through Tyre-Force Allocation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fault-Tolerant Control of Electric Vehicles with In-Wheel Motors through Tyre-Force Allocation
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Seoul: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSAE) , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with in-wheel motors. The ap-plied control algorithm is based on tyre-force allocation. One complex tyre-force allocation meth-od, which requires non-linear optimization, as well as a simpler tyre force allocation method are developed and applied. A comparison between them is conducted and evaluated against a standard reference vehicle with an Electronic Stability Control (ESC) algorithm. The faults in consideration are electrical faults that can arise in in-wheel motors of permanent-magnet type. The results show for both tyre-force allocation methods an improved re-allocation after a severe fault and thus re-sults in an improved state trajectory recovery. Thereby the proposed fault handling strategy be-comes an important component to improve system dependability and secure vehicle safety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Seoul: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSAE), 2012
Keyword
Fault-Tolerant Control, Force Allocation, Integrated Chassis Control
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98810 (URN)
Conference
11th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, 9 - 12 September 2012, Seoul, Korea
Funder
StandUpTrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20130611

Available from: 2012-07-03 Created: 2012-07-03 Last updated: 2014-06-18Bibliographically approved

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