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Sampling and Analysis of Tars by Means of Photo Ionization Detection and Solid Phase Micro Extraction
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Gasification of biomass will likely play an important role in the production of energy and chemicals in a future sustainable society. However, during gasification impurities, such as tars, will be formed. Tars may cause fouling and blockages of equipment downstream the gasifier. It is therefore important to minimize the formation of tars, alternatively to remove the formed tars. These processes need to be monitored, which makes it necessary to develop tar analysis methods suitable for this task.

This work describes the development of two tar analysis methods, an on-line method based on a photoionization detector (PID) and an off-line method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME). Both methods were successfully validated against the established solid phase adsorption (SPA) method.

The method based on PID was shown to have a very fast response time. Furthermore, the PID method is selective towards tar, but only limited information will be obtained regarding the composition of the tar compounds. The PID method is suitable for applications where it is important to detect fast changes of the tar concentration, i.e. process monitoring.

The SPME method was shown to be a very sensitive method for qualitative and quantitative tar analysis. The sampling temperature was shown to be crucial for obtaining analysis results with the wanted detection limit. The SPME method is suitable for applications where extremely low detection and quantification limits are needed, i.e. for syngas production.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , viii, 77 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:39
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131115ISBN: 978-91-7501-861-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-131115DiVA: diva2:654635
Public defence
2013-10-25, E3, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131009

Available from: 2013-10-09 Created: 2013-10-08 Last updated: 2013-10-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Development of an on-line tar measurement method based on photo ionization technique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an on-line tar measurement method based on photo ionization technique
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2011 (English)In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 176, no 1, 250-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents work in progress for development of an on-line method based on PID (Photo Ionization Detector) for quantitative measurement of tar from biomass gasification. To calibrate the method the PID signals are compared to quantitative data of individual tar compounds obtained by an established reference method. The measured response factors for the model tar compounds demonstrated very good linearity. The PID approach was tested on-line with real producer gases from an atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier operated at 800-900 °C. The results suggest that PID can be used for continuous on-line tar measurement of product gases from biomass gasification.

Keyword
Gasification, On-line analysis, Photo ionization, PID, Tar, Atmospheric fluidized bed, Biomass Gasification, Model tar, Online methods, Quantitative data, Quantitative measurement, Reference method, Response factor, Tar measurement, Work in progress, Fluidization, Fluidized beds, Ionization of gases
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48151 (URN)10.1016/j.cattod.2010.12.020 (DOI)000296527900048 ()2-s2.0-80054020615 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150630

Available from: 2011-11-16 Created: 2011-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Development of a PID based on-line tar measurement method: Proof of concept
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a PID based on-line tar measurement method: Proof of concept
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2013 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 113, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, a proof of concept was conducted for an on-line tar analyzer based on photo ionization detection (PID). Tar model compounds (naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, indane and indene) were used for the initial investigation of the analysis method. It was found that the analysis method has a high sensitivity and a linear behavior was observed between the PID response and the tar concentration over a wide concentration span. The on-line tar analysis method was successfully validated against the solid phase adsorption (SPA) method using a real producer gas.

Keyword
Gasification, Photo ionization, PID, Tar On-line analysis
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131186 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2013.05.075 (DOI)000323937300014 ()2-s2.0-84879242781 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131008

Available from: 2013-10-08 Created: 2013-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Application of Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) as a Tar Sampling Method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) as a Tar Sampling Method
2013 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27, no 7, 3853-3860 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the result of an investigation of the potential use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a tar sampling method. The SPME stationary phase used was 50 mu m of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated on a fused silica fiber. Tar model compounds normally present in a producer gas from gasifiers, benzene, toluene, indane, indene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, were used in the investigation. The adsorbed compounds were analyzed by injection into gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC- FID). The amount of adsorbed tar on the SPME fiber determined the detection and quantification limits for the method. The results showed that adsorption of tar model compounds on the SPME fiber increased with decreasing polarity. The adsorption of compounds increased with a decreasing temperature, enabling a possibility to tune the sensitivity of the method by changing the sampling temperature. Conclusively, SPME has a very high potential as a tar sampling method and, in combination with GC- FID trace analysis of tar, is a feasible application.

Keyword
Adsorption, Anthracene, Gas chromatography, Gas generators, Naphthalene, Trace analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126887 (URN)10.1021/ef400694d (DOI)000322150200028 ()2-s2.0-84880525928 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20130822

Available from: 2013-08-22 Created: 2013-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) as a tar sampling method during real gasification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) as a tar sampling method during real gasification
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131206 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-10-09 Created: 2013-10-09 Last updated: 2013-10-09Bibliographically approved

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