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Prospective Control and Object Representation in Yound Infants: An action-based account
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present thesis was to study the age-related differences of prospective control and object representation in young infants. The overall set of theoretical and empirical issues addressed in this thesis consists of how infants represent and react to visible and non-visible moving objects. This involves understanding the interrelationship between different actions, such as head and trunk movements, and reaching. Questions about infants’ ability to negotiate different kinds of motions and the notion that infant representation of an occluded object can be graded in strength are also addressed in the present thesis. The hypothesis of graded representation proposed that a concept of object representation is not a clear-cut distinction between whether one has a representation or not. It is rather a graded process, evolving with experience and becoming embedded in processes underlying overt behaviour. Study I showed that perturbing an object affected the quality of grasp, which seems to indicate that the approach and grasp components are, at least partially, integrated by nine months of age. The analysis of the relationship between head and hand movements showed tightness in the coupling between these movements, as indicated by a small correction time difference between them. Study III showed that 6-month-old infants, under certain conditions, can form a dynamical representation of a moving and temporarily occluded object, taking into account the velocity and the direction of the object’s motion. It also revealed three other interesting findings: firstly, that an occluder could provide landmark information about object reappearance; secondly, that reaching was dramatically disrupted when the object was temporarily non-visible either due to occlusion or blackout of the room lights and thirdly, that reaching recovered markedly after a few trials, but only when subject to blackout. Overall, the results supported the hypothesis of graded representations. In Study IV, when infants observed a circular object motion, it was shown that while head tracking is functional in 6-month-old infants, it continues to develop and become more refined up to, and beyond, the age of 12 months. The structural organization of head tracking in both 6 and 12-month-old infants complied with an organizational pattern of accelerations and decelerations, or so-called movement units, which is in line with earlier studies of both goal-directed and spontaneous arm movements. The intersegmental coupling between the head and the trunk showed that the infants tried to stabilise head movements by adjustments of the trunk. In addition, study II presents a method for coding prehensile movements by means of a touch screen system, which is used in study III.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2001. , 53 p.
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81215ISBN: 91-7305-030-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-81215DiVA: diva2:653471
Public defence
Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-02-21 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2014-02-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The coupling of head, reach and grasp movement in ninemonths old infant prehension
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The coupling of head, reach and grasp movement in ninemonths old infant prehension
1997 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 38, no 4, 325-333 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 9-month-old-infants adjustments in the reaching pattern to sudden changes in object location were examined. An attractive ball was presented to the infants at their midline and on some trials (perturbation trials) the ball suddenly changed position 15 cm to the right or left during the reach. For the perturbed trials the movement times approximately doubled compared to the control trials and significantly fewer balls were grasped. The results indicate that infants need to finish the first movement before being able to redirect the reach to a new destination. The correlation between the latency of the head and hand adjustment to the perturbation were 0.85 and 0.78 for movements to the left and to the right, respectively, indicating a tight coupling. The time between the start of the perturbation and peak velocity(TPPV) was significantly shorter for the head movement than for the hand movement, indicating that the head is leading the hand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley: , 1997
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81210 (URN)10.1111/1467-9450.00042 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. MicroTouch®Screen technology for the use of coding crude movements and as a response surface for pointing tasks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MicroTouch®Screen technology for the use of coding crude movements and as a response surface for pointing tasks
2000 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The following is a description of an inexpensive touch monitor system, based on a MicroTouch monitor and specifically developed software. When touching the MicroTouch monitor, a pre-determined set of values are extracted and displayed in a terminal window as single X and Y coordinates. The program is written in C, runs directly in either MS DOS or through Windows and also serves as a receiver that automatically saves the X and Y coordinates in a text-file format. This paper describes the overall system, discusses the system validity and reliability as well as how it was used in a context of coding crude motor behavior and as a response surface for a specific pen-pointing task.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, psykologiska institutionen, 2000. 12 p.
Series
Umeå psychological reports, ISSN 0375-4561 ; 211
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81213 (URN)
Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2014-02-21Bibliographically approved
3. Infants’ ability to track and reach for temporarily occluded objects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants’ ability to track and reach for temporarily occluded objects
2003 (English)In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 6, no 1, 86-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Six-month-old infants were presented with a moving object that temporarily became invisible. The object moved on a horizontal path and was made invisible for either 400, 800 or 1,200 ms before being within reach. Two kinds of events were used to make the object invisible: blackout of the room lights and occlusion behind a screen. First, infants saw 6 trials of the fully visible motion, then 12 trials of a temporarily invisible motion and finally 6 trials of the fully visible motion again. Each infant was presented with only one of the 6 experimental conditions. The results show that reaching is much more severely affected by a eriod of temporary non-visibility than tracking. The effects of the two modes of non-visibility were rather different. In general, lackout deteriorated tracking and made the gaze lag at reappearance. It inhibited reaching but this effect attenuated with experience. onger periods of blackout deteriorated tracking and reaching more. Compared to blackout, occlusion had both a facilitating and an inhibiting effect on infants’ actions. Tracking had less tendency to lag but reaching showed more severe inhibition. The results are discussed in terms of graded representations. Furthermore, it is argued that an occluder facilitates tracking by providing information of where the moving object becomes visible again and it inhibits reaching by interfering with the representation of the object behind the occluder.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81202 (URN)10.1111/1467-7687.00258 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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