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Sustainability Comparison between EnDev and not-EnDev Micro-Hydro Power (MHP) in Indonesia: Analysis of the long-term technical, social, environmental and economic sustainability of the rural energy infrastructure of MHP in Indonesia
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. ME3 Consortium: UPM Madrid (Spain), EMN Nantes (France), KTH Stockholm (Sweden).
2013 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The Energising Development (EnDev) initiative, for which the GIZ acts as implementing agency, promotes the supply of modern energy technologies to households and small‐scale businesses in the rural communities of 24 countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia.

In Indonesia, this has been achieved through off‐grid micro‐hydro (MHP) and solar power mini‐grids and since 2006 230 MHP and 117 solar projects have been supported to varying degree at substantial cost, reaching more than 167 thousand people.

The objective of this study is to assess this contribution of the EnDev-Indonesia initiative regarding the MHP performance and ultimate long‐term sustainability prospect of the rural energy infrastructure in the country.

As such a comparison between EnDev and non-EnDev MHP projects in the country was undertaken and based on the established Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) survey methodology and the DB&TO sustainability model specifically fashioned for the purpose of this study.

This approach involved on‐site visits and comprises technical, social, economic and environmental aspects.

As a result, the analysis has shown important differences among the different supporting schemes, with the second implementing phase (2009‐2012) of EnDev outranking the other systems largely due to the high level of technical sustainability achieved by these sites.

Such a good performance is even more surprising considering that the EnDev1 sites implemented during the first phase of the program in the early years were among the least‐sustainable investigated in this study.

However, despite the high costs necessary to reach such a high level of sustainability as regards the quality of the civil works and electro‐mechanical equipments, this aspect alone was found not enough to guarantee the long‐term sustainability of MHP in Indonesia. On the other hand, lack of social and economic sustainability appeared having fatal consequences onthe operations of many plants.

Therefore, such complex interrelation among the different aspects of sustainability was investigated and also external factors, like the regional and cultural differences among the different beneficiaries, were addressed.

Finally, recommendations for future eventual courses of action were proposed. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 101 p.
Keyword [en]
Micro‐Hydro Power; Indonesia; Rural Electrification; Energy Poverty; Sustainability; Off‐grid; Monitoring; Sustainable Energy; Community Empowerment; Renewable Energy.
National Category
Energy Systems
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129289OAI: diva2:651342
Educational program
Master of Science - Management and Engineering of Environment and Energy
2013-09-18, Madrid (Spain), 13:49 (English)
Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2013-12-20Bibliographically approved

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