Life cycle assessment and resource management options for bio-ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
The intent of this thesis is to analyse the sustainability of producing bio-ethanol from cane molasses in Indonesia and its potential to replace gasoline in the transportation sector. A field trip was conducted in East Java, Indonesia, and data was gathered for analysis. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to analyse the net emissions and energy consumption in the process chain. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the life cycle are 17.45 gCO2e per MJ of ethanol produced. In comparison to gasoline, this results in a 78% reduction in GHG emissions in the complete process chain. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) were 6.65 MJ/l and 24 MJ/l. Energy yield ratio (ER) was 9.43 MJ of ethanol per MJ of fossil energy consumed in the process. Economic allocation was chosen for allocating resources between sugar and molasses. Sensitivity analysis of various parameters was performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield and the price of molasses. Alternative management options were considered for optimizing the life cycle. Utilizing ethanol from all the mills in Indonesia has a potential to replace 2.3% of all motor gasoline imports. This translates in import savings of 2.3 trillion IDR per year. Use of anaerobic digestion or oxidation ponds for waste water treatment is unviable due to high costs and issues with gas leakage. Utilizing 15% of cane trash in the mill can enable grid independency. Environmental impacts due to land use change (Direct & Indirect) can be crucial in overall GHG calculations. Governmental regulation is necessary to remove current economic hurdles to aid a smoother transition towards bioethanol production and utilization.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 57 p.
Life cycle assessment, GHG emissions, Net energy value, Energy yield ratio, Resource allocation, Sensitivity analysis
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-127863OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-127863DiVA: diva2:646463
Subject / course
Energy and Climate Studies
Master of Science - Environomical Pathways for Sustainable Energy Systems
2013-05-31, M312, Brinellvagen 68, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
ProjectsHarnessing agricultural feedstock and residues for bioethanol production - towards a sustainable biofuel strategy in Indonesia