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Volatile Emissions from Compressed Tissue
Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping.
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since almost every fifth patient treated in hospital care develops pressure ulcers, early identification of risk is important. A non-invasive method for the elucidation of endogenous biomarkers related to pressure ulcers could be an excellent tool for this purpose. We therefore found it of interest to determine if there is a difference in the emissions of volatiles from compressed and uncompressed tissue. The ultimate goal is to find a non-invasive method to obtain an early warning for the risk of developing pressure ulcers for bed-ridden persons. Chemical analysis of the emissions, collected in compresses, was made with gas-chromatography – mass spectrometry and with a chemical sensor array, the so called electronic nose. It was found that the emissions from healthy and hospitalized persons differed significantly irrespective of the site. Within each group there was a clear difference between the compressed and uncompressed site. Peaks that could be certainly deemed as markers of the compression were, however, not identified. Nonetheless, different compounds connected to the application of local mechanical pressure were found. The results obtained with GC-MS reveal the complexity of VOC composition, thus an array of non-selective chemical sensors seems to be a suitable choice for the analysis of skin emission from compressed tissues; it may represent a practical instrument for bed side diagnostics. Results show that the adopted electronic noses are likely sensitive to the total amount of the emission rather than to its composition. The development of a gas sensor-based device requires then the design of sensor receptors adequate to detect the VOCs bouquet typical of pressure. This preliminary experiment evidences the necessity of studies where each given person is followed for a long time in a ward in order to detect the insurgence of specific VOCs pattern changes signalling the occurrence of ulcers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2013. Vol. 8, no 7
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Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97248DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069271ISI: 000321736900145OAI: diva2:645784

Funding Agencies|NovaMedTech, a regional program within biomedical engineering||

Available from: 2013-09-05 Created: 2013-09-05 Last updated: 2013-10-08

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Ek, Anna-ChristinaLindgren, MargaretaLundström, Ingemar
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Department of Medical and Health SciencesFaculty of Health SciencesDivision of Nursing ScienceDepartment of Acute Health Care in LinköpingBiosensors and BioelectronicsThe Institute of Technology
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