Marine mammal behavior response to sonars, a review
Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
During the last decades the problems caused by anthropogenic sound and noise in oceans have been recognized in public, by governments, and military. With the use of active sonar, different choices can be made to minimize the risk of damaging or disturbing marine mammals. For this purpose knowledge of sonar disturbance is crucial. There are methods for time or area planning, i.e. when and where to use active sonars, to avoid marine mammals. The purpose of this work is to find information in literature on marine mammal behaviour reactions to the sound of sonar pings, and to evaluate which of two different behavioural models used in risk assessment programs, the “varying response” model and the “avoidance” model, is more correct to use. Main focus is on sonars and marine mammals residing in Sweden, i.e. the harbour porpoise, grey seal, harbour seal and ringed seal. Behavioral results from other research areas such as bycatch, environmental, and strandings, together with other sound sources than sonars and other species, provide a broader picture of the situation in noisy oceans. For the harbor porpoise the “avoidance” model works well. It is a very shy species, which flees fast and far when it comes in contact with new things. With the seals however the “avoidance” model is probably less good, since their responses to sonar differ rather much. Hence, for these taxa we recommend to use the “various” model that takes into account such varying responses.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 21 p.
Nyckelord/Keyword: Marine mammal, anthropogenic noise, sonar, behaviour, risk assessment models
Behavioral Sciences Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97226ISRN: LiTH-IFM- Ex--13/2826--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-97226DiVA: diva2:645674
Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut FOI
Subject / course
Johansson, Torbjörn, Dr
Amundin, Mats, Prof