Attraction Based Models of Collective Motion
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Animal groups often exhibit highly coordinated collective motion in a variety of situations. For example, bird flocks, schools of fish, a flock of sheep being herded by a dog and highly efficient traffic on an ant trail. Although these phenomena can be observed every day all over the world our knowledge of what rules the individual's in such groups use is very limited. Questions of this type has been studied using so called self-propelled particle (SPP) models, most of which assume that collective motion arises from individuals aligning with their neighbors. Here we introduce and analyze a SPP-model based on attraction alone. We find that it produces all the typical groups seen in alignment-based models and some novel ones. In particular, a group that exhibits collective motion coupled with non-trivial internal dynamics. Groups that have this property are rarely seen in SPP-models and we show that even when a repulsion term is added to the attraction only model such groups are still present. These findings suggest that an interplay between attraction and repulsion may be the main driving force in real flocks and that the alignment rule may be superfluous.
We then proceed to model two different experiments using the SPP-model approach. The first is a shepherding algorithm constructed primarily to model experiments where a sheepdog is herding a flock of sheep. We find that in addition to modeling the specific experimental situation well the algorithm has some properties which may make it useful in more general shepherding situations. The second is a traffic model for leaf-cutting ants bridges. Based on earlier experiments a set of traffic rules for ants on a very narrow bridge had been suggested. We show that these are sufficient to produce the observed traffic dynamics on the narrow bridge. And that when extended to a wider bridge by replacing 'Stop' with 'Turn' the new rules are sufficient to produce several key characteristics of the dynamics on the wide bridge, in particular three-lane formation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Mathematics, 2013. , 35 p.
Uppsala Dissertations in Mathematics, ISSN 1401-2049 ; 82
flocking, swarming, self-propelled particles, alignment-free models, agent-based modelling, leaf-cutting ant traffic, sheep-sheepdog system, the Shepherding problem
Other Mathematics Ecology
Research subject Mathematics with specialization in Applied Mathematics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205875ISBN: 978-91-506-2368-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-205875DiVA: diva2:645463
2013-11-14, Polhemsalen, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 15:15 (English)
Sumpter, David J. T.
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