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Collaborative development of resource efficient district heating in Sweden
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation could significantly reduce energy demands. Industrial excess heat-based district heating systems are generally considered resource efficient because they reduce the use of fossil fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. In addition, collaborating actors can gain financial benefits.

In Sweden, although collaboration around heat supply has increased recently, the amount of excess heat that is utilized is low compared to the amount created by industrial processes. Using excess-heat recovery in district heating grids is currently one of the most cost-effective ways of providing additional heat to district heating systems.

Expansion and new construction of district heating systems in new residential areas can be seen as an opportunity to further use industrial excess heat. Sweden’s local authorities can influence the development of energy systems used for new residential developments. Increased knowledge about how collaborations evolve could be used to develop strategies that could encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating.

This licentiate thesis examines the role of organisational collaboration when it comes to the emergence of resource efficient district heating. The thesis summarises results from three articles and investigates the preconditions for, drivers behind, and barriers to the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating in Sweden. These investigations focus on both the district heating companies’ and industries’ points of view. The thesis also discusses how Swedish spatial planning practice could improve the conditions for resource efficient district heating.

Important preconditions for excess-heat collaborations to develop, from the actors’ points of view, are mainly financial. However, relationships based on trust, honesty, shared goals, information transfer, and joint problem solving are also necessary for such collaborations to evolve and develop into long-term successful excess-heat collaborations. These features are also important when it comes to the decision-making process, because knowledge gained through the participation of stakeholders is required to understand common goals and objectives and to put these into practice.

As for the development of new excess heat-based district heating systems, results show that the district heating companies generally participate late in the spatial planning process. An earlier dialogue between local authority planners and district heating companies could facilitate the emergence and development of new excess heat-based district heating systems. Furthermore, to facilitate the use of excess heat-based systems, planning should also take into account any nearby industry that produces excess heat. In addition, investment subsidies could encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating and provide long-term environmental benefits for collaborating actors as well as for society at large.

Abstract [sv]

En ökad återvinning av restvärme från industriprocesser är önskvärt då det har potential att avsevärt minska behovet av primär energi. Fjärrvärmesystem baserade på industriell restvärme kan i allmänhet anses som resurseffektiva då de bidrar till en minskad användning av fossila bränslen och utsläpp av växthusgaser. Dessutom finns det ekonomiska fördelar att vinna för de aktörer som ingår restvärmesamarbete.

Sverige har restvärmesamarbeten mellan fjärrvärmeföretag och industrin ökat det senaste decenniet. Trots detta är dock den outnyttjade potentialen stor i relation till de befintliga mängder restvärme de industriella processerna i landet ger upphov till. Tillvaratagande av industriell restvärme i fjärrvärmenät är i dagsläget ett av de mest kostnadseffektiva sätten att tillhandahålla värmeenergin.

Expansion och nybyggnation av fjärrvärme i nya områden öppnar upp för möjligheten att ytterligare utnyttja industriell restvärme. En viktig aktör för att möjliggöra detta är Sveriges kommuner som har befogenhet att påverka den framtida utvecklingen av energisystemen genom planeringen av nya områden. Även ökad kunskap om hur samarbeten över organisationsgränser utvecklas är önskvärd för att ytterligare öka förutsättningarna för utvecklingen av restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem.

Denna licentiatavhandling undersöker vikten av organisatorisk samverkan rörande uppkomsten av resurseffektiv fjärrvärme. Avhandlingen sammanfattar resultaten från tre artiklar och undersöker, mer specifikt; förutsättningarna, drivkrafterna och hindren bakom uppkomsten och utvecklingen av restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem i Sverige, både utifrån fjärrvärmeföretagens och industrins perspektiv. Avhandlingen diskuterar även hur den svenska kommunala planeringspraktiken kan tillämpas för att förbättra förutsättningarna utvecklingen av resurseffektiv fjärrvärme.

Från de inblandade aktörernas synvinkel är det främst ekonomiska aspekter som lyfts fram som viktiga bakom utvecklingen av restvärmesamarbeten. Andra aspekter av organisatorisk karaktär som visat sig vara viktiga för utvecklingen är relationer baserade på förtroende, ärlighet, gemensamma mål, informationsutbyten och gemensam problemlösning. Dessa aspekter har visat sig vara nödvändiga för utvecklingen av långsiktigt hållbara och framgångsrika restvärmesamarbeten. Organisatoriska aspekter är också viktiga vad gäller beslutsprocessen eftersom kunskap genom deltagande av samtliga aktörer krävs för förståelse av de gemensamma målen, vilket i sin tur är en förutsättning för att kunna omsätta målen i praktiken.

Rörande utveckling av nya restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem visar studierna, inom ramarna för denna avhandling, att fjärrvärmeföretagen generellt bjuds in att delta sent i den fysiska planeringsprocessen. En tidigare dialog mellan de kommunala fysiska planerarna och fjärrvärmeföretagen skulle kunna underlätta utvecklingen av nya restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem. Vidare, för att öka förutsättningarna för  restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem bör man inom ramar na för den fysiska planeringen även ta närliggande befintlig industri med överskottsvärme som en biprodukt av sin produktion i beaktning.

Införande av investeringsstöd skulle förmodligen främja utvecklingen av restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem ytterligare, vilket också potentiellt skulle innebära långsiktiga miljövinster för de aktörer som deltar i samarbete, liksom för samhället i stort.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 43 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1621
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96885Local ID: LiU-TEK- LiC 2013:55ISBN: 978-91-7519-546-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-96885DiVA: diva2:643676
Presentation
2013-09-20, Sal A30, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The series number (111) on the cover and title pages is incorrect. The correct number is 1621. The ISSN is incorrect. The correct ISSN in the title page is 0280-7971.

Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-08-28 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind the Development of Excess Heat-Based Systems for District heating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind the Development of Excess Heat-Based Systems for District heating
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article identifies and elaborates on the preconditions, drivers, and barriers behind the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating in Sweden. Industrial excess heat-based district heating systems are generally considered resource-efficient because they reduce the use of fossil fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation could significantly reduce primary energy demands.

Although collaboration around heat supply in Sweden has increased, the utilization is low compared to the supply of excess heat produced as the result of industrial processes. Increased knowledge about how collaborations evolve could mean greater opportunities for the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating.

The study includes two Swedish cases of excess heat-based district heating systems. Using approaches developed within Industrial Symbiosis (IS), we analyse how industrial collaborations with respect to excess heat-based systems emerge and develop. For these collaborations to develop, relationships based on trust, honesty, shared goals, information transfer, and joint problem solving were necessary. These features are also important when it comes to the decision making process because knowledge gained through the participation of stakeholders is required to understand common goals and objectives and to translate them into practice. The organisational features are also important in order to overcome financial and technical barriers to such collaboration.

In addition, we argue that investment subsidies can encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating and can provide long-term environmental benefits for industry as well as for society at large.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97392 (URN)
Conference
The 18th Greening of Industry Network Conference, 21-24 October, 2012, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2013-09-11Bibliographically approved
2. Industry's Perspective on Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind Excess Het Supply Collaborations with the District heating sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industry's Perspective on Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind Excess Het Supply Collaborations with the District heating sector
2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article identifies and examines the preconditions, drivers, and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industry into district heating grids in Sweden. Large energy-intensive manufacturing industries generating large amounts of excess heat could use this otherwise-wasted industrial excess heat in systems of district heating. Using excess heat recovery in district heating grids is currently one of the most cost effective ways of providing additional heat to district heating systems. This study examines what is required for industries with excess heat production to collaborate with the district heating sector. Specifically, we analyse the preconditions behind the development of successful heat supply collaborations from an Industrial Symbiosis (IS) perspective by examine 16 industries that all produce excess heat as a by-product that is not externally used. For the industries to be willing to  enter excess heat collaboration with the district heating sector, we found that the important preconditions are mainly financial. However, we also found that there are certain organizational issues, such as relationships based on trust and personal ties that play an important role in the development of long-term successful excess heat collaborations between companies or other organizations and the district heating sector.

Keyword
District heating, Industrial excess heat, Inter-organizational collaboration, Organizational preconditions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97393 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2013-09-11Bibliographically approved
3. Spatial planning as a tool to facilitate district heating expansion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial planning as a tool to facilitate district heating expansion
2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the importance of strategic spatial planning associated with the existence and development of district heating. Within the planning of new residential developments in Sweden, local authorities have the authority to influence the future development of the energy systems. The aim of this study is two-fold: to examine whether and how district heating issues are addressed in municipal spatial planning of new residential areas and to discuss how Swedish planning legislation can improve the conditions for resource efficient district heating. The study includes an investigation of the planning process in six Swedish municipalities. The results show that the district heating companies generally participate late in the planning process. This delay means that important information often fails to be exchanged between the local authorities and the district heating companies, a lack of communication that undermines a widened systemic approach and long-term planning which are important preconditions for effective decision-making.

Keyword
Collaboration, Communication, District heating, Municipal spatial planning, Sustainable energy systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97394 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2013-09-11Bibliographically approved

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