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Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Paperboard Converting Processes
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An investigation of the mechanical properties of paperboard and its influence on converting processessuch as creasing, folding and forming, from both an experimental and numerical perspective wasperformed. Fundamental research to establish a material model for paperboard, and an experimentalout-of-plane shear test method was suggested. Research where the models were used for verificationwas also done. The numerical model is a combination of continuum and interface models. Thecontinuum model represents the paperboard plies, which is an orthotropic elastic-plastic model withHill criteria and isotropic hardening. The interface model is used for connecting the paperboard pliesand also contributing to the delamination properties during converting processes. The interface modelhas linear elastic behavior followed by the initiation and evolution of damage. Both of these twomodels are available in ABAQUS. An experimental characterization scheme consisting of threeexperiments: in-plane tensile test, double notch shear test and density measurements, was shown to besufficient to predict the creasing and folding behavior.The creasing and folding performance can be well predicted by the model. The impact of ply andinterface properties on different paperboards were investigated by numerical simulations, in order tomimic different production strategies. It was shown that the interface strengths mainly influenced thefolding behavior, whereas different ply properties affected the required creasing force.The forming investigation was conducted in a three dimensions deep pear-shape mould. The numericalinvestigation included the effect of pressure, boundary conditions, material properties, differentdeformation and damage mechanisms, i.e. delamination and plasticity. The results showed thesimulation can capture the failure pattern of experiments and the mechanisms during forming. Toachieve better forming performance with anisotropic commercial paperboard in an axis-symmetricmould, a combination of fixed and free boundary conditions can be used to minimize in-plane straincomponents while enabling delamination. Modification of material properties would enable an evenbetter optimization. Additionally, reduction of anisotropy can improve the forming performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 29 p.
Series
Trita-HFL. Report / Royal Institute of Technology, Solid Mechanics, ISSN 1654-1472 ; 0538
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-125883OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-125883DiVA: diva2:641055
Public defence
2013-08-30, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130815

Available from: 2013-08-15 Created: 2013-08-15 Last updated: 2013-08-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A simplified material model for finite element analysis of paperboard creasing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simplified material model for finite element analysis of paperboard creasing
2010 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 4, 505-512 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A simplified material model to model paperboard was proposed. Paperboard was modeled as a multilayered structure with a softening interface model connecting the paperboard plies. The paperboard plies were modeled using an anisotropic elastic model with a Hill yield surface and isotropic hardening. The model has less material constants than previous models, and the material constants can more easily be determined from uniaxial experiments. The model was tested by performing simulations of creasing of paperboard with a two dimensional finite element model, that mimiced a laboratory creasing device. Creasing experiments and simulations down to two different distances were performed, where the reaction force and displacement of the male ruler were measured. Simulations and experiements were performed both in the paperboard machine direction and cross machine direction. The force-displacement curves from the simulations and experiments were compared, with good agreement.

Keyword
Finite element analysis, Creasing, Paperboard, Mechanical properties
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-30994 (URN)000285701900012 ()2-s2.0-78651382314 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20110309

Available from: 2011-03-09 Created: 2011-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. The Dependency of Shear Zone Length on the Shear Strength Profiles in Paperboard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Dependency of Shear Zone Length on the Shear Strength Profiles in Paperboard
2012 (English)In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 52, no 8, 1047-1055 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the notched shear strength test (NST) has been further improved. In order to simplify and accelerate the testing procedure, the notches with declined slopes were used. With the proposed procedure, the shear strength profile in the thickness direction of a paperboard can be measured using one sheet only. By using the test setup, the dependency of shear zone length on shear strength was investigated. Experimental results show that both the measured shear strength values as well as the shear strength profile varied significantly with different shear zone length. Longer shear zone gave lower shear strength values and flatter profiles, while a shorter shear zone gave higher strength values and more pronounced shear strength profiles that better followed the paperboard ply structure. This proposed new method was also compared with the NST, strip shear test (SST) and rigid shear test (RST) method by using the same test material.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103359 (URN)10.1007/s11340-011-9559-z (DOI)000308238300007 ()2-s2.0-84865703320 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121012

Available from: 2012-10-12 Created: 2012-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Numerical and experimental investigation of paperboard folding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical and experimental investigation of paperboard folding
2011 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 4, 452-467 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Creasing and folding of paperboard are important converting operations in manufacturing of packages. A two-dimensional finite element simulation of multiply paperboard that was creased and folded was presented, and the numerical results were compared with experimental data. The paperboard material model was defined by a combination of an anisotropic elastic-plastic continuum model with isotropic hardening and a softening interface model. Based on experimental observations of variations of properties in the thickness direction of the paperboard, a material mapping method was proposed to define the material parameter in the models. The tilted double notch shear test technique was used to measure the shear strengths for the paperboard interfaces. The material model and data were validated by simulations of the creasing process. Folding simulations were done for both paperboard machine direction and cross machine direction, to two crease depths, 0.0 mm and 0.2 mm. The simulation results were compared with experimental results, where the bending moment-rotation angle curve from the simulation and experiments showed good agreement.

 

Keyword
Folding, Finite element method, Multi-plied paperboard, Creasing
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31516 (URN)000298868000013 ()
Note
Trita-HFL, ISSN 1104-6813; 0502. QC 20110317Available from: 2011-03-17 Created: 2011-03-17 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Quasi static analysis of creasing and folding for three paperboards
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quasi static analysis of creasing and folding for three paperboards
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The creasing and folding behavior of three paperboards have been studied both experimentally and numerically. Creasing and folding studies were performed on strips in both the machine direction and the cross machine direction. A finite element model that mimicked the experimental creasing and folding setup was developed, and the creasing and folding behavior could be well predicted for all three paperboards.

An experimental characterization scheme consisting of three experiments was proposed, and was shown to be sufficient to predict the creasing and folding behavior. For the whole paperboard the shear strength profiles in the through thickness direction was determined with the notched shear test. Each ply was laid free by grinding, and density measurements and in-plane tension tests were performed on the bottom, middle and top plies of each paperboard. Instead of assuming uniform properties in each ply, the shear strength profiles were used to map the measured properties in the through thickness direction.

Numerical simulations were performed when the ply and interface properties of the paperboards were altered to follow different shear strength profiles. This was done in order to mimic different production strategies. It was shown that the interface strengths mainly influenced the folding behavior. Whereas altered the ply properties affected the creasing force needed.

Publisher
34 p.
Series
Trita-HFL. Report / Royal Institute of Technology, Solid Mechanics, ISSN 1654-1472 ; 0537
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-125886 (URN)
Note

QC 20130815

Available from: 2013-08-15 Created: 2013-08-15 Last updated: 2013-08-15Bibliographically approved
5. Numerical investigation of paperboard forming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical investigation of paperboard forming
2012 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, 211-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A three dimensional numerical investigation of a commercial four-ply paperboard formed into a pear-shaped mould was presented. The numerical investigation included the effect of pressure, boundary conditions, material properties and different deformation and damage mechanisms such as delamination and plasticity. Simulations were done in both the MD and CD using different pressures. A paperboard model with a combination of anisotropic continuum model and a softening interface model had good deformation behavior during the forming simulations. Forming experiment that mimicked the simulations was performed. Numerical and experiment results were compared with good agreement.

Keyword
Paperboard, Forming, Numerical investigation, Mechanical properties
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104876 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2012-27-02-p211-225 (DOI)000315696000007 ()2-s2.0-84865251396 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121114

Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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