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Comparative avian developmental toxicity of PFAAs
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants that can commonly be found in environmental matrixes and wildlife from all over the globe. The PFAAs have been used in applications such as water and dirt repelling treatments for textiles, oil-resistant paper coatings and fire-fighting foams. Four studies were designed to evaluate the occurrence of PFAAs in Swedish populations of birds, the developmental toxicity of different PFAAs and species sensitivity differences as well as possible modes of action for the toxicity. The studied species were domestic chicken, and the wild species great cormorant and herring gull. Cormorant and gull eggs were collected from bird colonies in Lake Vänern, Sweden. Chemical analyses were performed on some of the eggs to determine the occurrence of 15 PFAAs in the eggs. The other eggs and eggs of domestic chicken were incubated and injected with solutions of the PFAAs PFOS, PFOA, PFBS and PFUnDA. The eggs were candled every 1-3 days to determine viability. High levels of PFAAs, mainly PFOS followed by PFUnDA, were found in the herring gull and great cormorant eggs. PFOS was found at concentrations up to 1163 ng/g and 771 ng/g in cormorant and herring gull, respectively. In the toxicity tests, chicken was found to be more sensitive than the wild species and cormorant was in general the least sensitive species. PFOA was found to be the most toxic of the chemicals followed by PFOS, PFBS and PFUnDA in decreasing order. Comparing these results with the levels of these chemicals found in the eggs of herring gull and great cormorant, PFOS is the chemical of most concern. Although PFOA had the highest toxicity, the levels found in the eggs were very low. In an additional study, the hepatic β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos after in ovo exposure to PFOS was studied with a tritium release assay. PFOS was found to increase the β-oxidation of palmitic acid at PFOS concentrations 3-7 times lower than the average egg levels in cormorant and herring gull. Therefore the occurrence of effects on the fatty acid metabolism cannot be ruled out. The doses of effect on embryo survival in the toxicity and the levels found in the herring gulls and cormorants gives a small margin of safety for the wild populations. Continued environmental monitoring and further studies on the toxicity of PFAAs that occur at high environmental concentrations is important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2013. , p. 54
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 7
Keywords [en]
chicken, herring gull, cormorant, PFAA, PFOS, PFOA, toxicity, levels
National Category
Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30099Libris ID: 14629139ISBN: 978-91-7668-959-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-30099DiVA, id: diva2:638706
Public defence
2013-10-04, Hörsalen, Billbergska huset, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-01 Created: 2013-08-01 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden
2013 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mug/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29083 (URN)10.1007/s11356-013-1567-3 (DOI)000325811600047 ()
Funder
Formas
Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50% reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

Keywords
PFOS, PFOA, chicken, herring gull, great cormorant, developmental toxicity
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32655 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. Developmental toxicity of PFBS and PFUnDA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis),herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental toxicity of PFBS and PFUnDA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis),herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in a wide range of biological matrixes due to their persistent nature and widespread and longtime use. Among the most commonly found in wildlife are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). PFOS and its precursors have been replaced by shorter chained compounds such as perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOS and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) are generally the most studied and studies on wild species of birds are scarce. In this study chicken, great cormorant and herring gull eggs were exposed to solutions of PFBS and PFUnDA. The eggs were incubated and candled to monitor embryo survival. PFBS significantly reduced survival in all species at 17.3 μg/g anion dose. Chicken LD50 was calculated to 29 μg/g. The cormorant was less sensitive. PFUnDA did not affect embryo survival in any of the species but did increase liver somatic index and decrease heart somatic index in chicken. Chemical analysis confirmed that the liver absorption of the chemicals correlated to the injected dose. Chicken was found to accumulate more of the PFAAs in the liver than the wild species. Comparing observed effects and environmental levels, PFBS and PFUnDA are of minor environmental concern compared to PFOS. However, due to their persistent nature and the possibility of cumulative effects of several PFAAs, continued monitoring and moretoxicological studies are needed.

Keywords
PFBS, PFUnDA
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32656 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver
2012 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1859-1863Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) belongs to a group of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl acids that have been extensively used in various applications such as stain and oil resistant treatments for fabrics, fire-fighting foams, and insecticides. These chemicals present an environmental and health risk being present in many samples both in wildlife and humans. In this study, we investigate the effect of PFOS on fatty acid β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos.

Methods: Fertilized chicken eggs were exposed in ovo to PFOS at day 4 of incubation. On day 10, the eggs were dissected and livers were incubated in vitro with (3)H-palmitic acid for 2 h. The media were collected, and after clean up, the amount of tritiated water was measured with liquid scintillation counting to determine the rate of palmitic acid β-oxidation.

Results: PFOS was found to induce fatty acid β-oxidation at doses starting from a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 0.1 μg/g egg weight. Maximum induction of 77 % compared to control was seen at 0.3 μg/g.

Conclusions: The administered doses in which effects are seen are around and even lower than the levels that can be found in wild populations of birds. General population human levels are a factor of two to three times lower than the LOEL value of this study. The environmental contamination of PFOS therefore presents a possibility of effects in wild populations of birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
Keywords
Perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS, exposure, chicken, palmitic acid, β-oxidation, tritium
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Biological Sciences Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Research subject
Biology; Biomedical Laboratory Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24853 (URN)10.1007/s11356-012-0869-1 (DOI)000305884600053 ()22441698 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84863225035 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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