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ROBUST MICRODEVICE MANUFACTURING BY DIRECT LITHOGRAPHY AND ADHESIVE-FREE BONDING OF OFF-STOICHIOMETRY THIOL-ENE-EPOXY (OSTE+) POLYMER
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9651-4900
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9418-452X
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6443-878X
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: 17th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & EUROSENSORS XXVII (IEEE TRANSDUCERS 2013), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 408-411 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We here demonstrate, for the first time, the use of direct lithography in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene-epoxy (OSTE+) to fabricate a microdevice. First, the photolithographic property of OSTE+ is shown by using a photomask to create micropillars with an aspect-ratio of 1:10 in a 2 mm thick layer. Secondly, a three-layer OSTE+ microdevice containing in-/outlet holes, channels, and pillars is fabricated by using a combination of direct lithography and adhesive-free dry bonding. The resulting microdevice shows desirable properties, such as leak-free filling and hydrophilic surfaces. This fabrication method enhances the microstructurability of OSTE+ beyond that of conventional soft lithography replica molding of other polymers, such as PDMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013. 408-411 p.
Keyword [en]
Bonding, epoxy, microdevice fabrication, Microfluidics, OSTE+, photolithography, soft lithography, thiol, thiol-ene
National Category
Polymer Technologies Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124782DOI: 10.1109/Transducers.2013.6626789Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84891691276ISBN: 978-146735981-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-124782DiVA: diva2:638583
Conference
17th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & EUROSENSORS XXVII (IEEE TRANSDUCERS 2013), Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 Jun, 2013
Projects
RoutineRappidXMEMS
Note

QC 20140212

Available from: 2013-07-31 Created: 2013-07-31 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Thiol-ene and Thiol-ene-epoxy Based Polymers for Biomedical Microdevices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thiol-ene and Thiol-ene-epoxy Based Polymers for Biomedical Microdevices
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within healthcare there is a market pull for biomedical devices that can rapidly perform laboratory processes, such as diagnostic testing, in a hand-held format. For this reason, biomedical devices must become smaller, more sophisticated, and easier to use for a reasonable cost. However, despite the accelerating academic research on biomedical microdevices, and especially plastic-based microfluidic chips, there is still a gap between the inventions in academia and their benefit to society. To bridge this gap there is a need for new materials which both exhibit similar properties as industrial thermoplastics, and that enable rapid prototyping in academia.

In this thesis, thiol-ene and thiol-ene-epoxy thermosets are evaluated both in terms of their suitability for rapid prototyping of biomedical microdevices and their potential for industrial manufacturing of “lab-on-chips”.

The first part of the thesis focuses on material development of thiol-ene and thiol-ene-epoxy thermosets. Chemical and mechanical properties are studied, as well as in vitro biocompatibility with cells.

The second part of the thesis focuses on microfabrication methods for both thermosets. This includes reaction injection molding, photostructuring, and surface modification. It is demonstrated how thiol-ene and thiol-ene-epoxy both provide advantageous thermo-mechanical properties and versatile surface modifications via “thiol-click chemistry”.

In the end of the thesis, two applications for both polymer platforms are demonstrated. Firstly, thiol-ene is used for constructing nanoliter well arrays for liquid storage and on-demand electrochemical release. Secondly, thiol-ene-epoxy is used to enhance the biocompatibility of neural probes by tuning their flexibility.

It is concluded that both thiol-ene and thiol-ene-epoxy thermosets exhibit several properties that are highly suitable for rapid prototyping as well as for scalable manufacturing of biomedical microdevices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 93 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2017:129
Keyword
biomedical microdevices, lab-on-a-chip, off-stoichiometry thiol-ene, OSTE, thiol-ene-epoxy, hybrid polymer networks, reaction injection molding, photostructuring, surface modification, bonding, liquid encapsulation, biocompatibility
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Medical Engineering Medical Biotechnology Materials Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215110 (URN)978-91-7729-530-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-13, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research CouncilEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20171003

Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-02 Last updated: 2017-10-03Bibliographically approved
2. OSTE Microfluidic Technologies for Cell Encapsulation and Biomolecular Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>OSTE Microfluidic Technologies for Cell Encapsulation and Biomolecular Analysis
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In novel drug delivery system, the encapsulation of therapeutic cells in microparticles has great promises for the treatment of a range of health con- ditions. Therefore, the encapsulation material and technology are of great importance to the validity and efficiency of the advanced medical therapy. Several unsolved challenges in regards to versatile microparticle synthesis ma- terials and methods form the main obstacle for a translation of novel cell therapy concepts from research to clinical practice.

Thiol-ene based polymer systems have emerged and gained great popular- ity in material development in general and in biomedical applications specif- ically. The thiol-ene platform is broad and therefore of interest for a variety of applications. At the same time, many aspects of this material platform are largely unexplored, for example material and manufacturing technology developments for microfluidic applications .

In this Ph.D. thesis, thiol-ene materials are explored for use in cell encap- sulation. The marriage of these two technology fields breeds the possibility for a novel microfluidic cell encapsulation approach using a novel encapsulation material. To this end, several new manufacturing technologies for thiol-ene and thiol-ene-epoxy droplet microfluidic devices were developed. Moreover, core-shell microparticle synthesis for cell encapsulation based on a novel co- synthesis concept using a thiol-ene based material was developed and inves- tigated. Finally, a thiol-ene-epoxy system was also used for the formation of microwells and microchannels that improve protein analysis on microarrays.

The first part of the thesis presents the background and state-of-the-art technologies in regards to cell therapy, microfluidics, and thiol-ene based ma- terials. In the second part of the thesis, a novel manufacturing approach of thiol-ene-epoxy material as well as core-shell particle co-synthesis in micro- fluidics using thiol-ene based material are presented and characterized. The third part of the thesis presents the cell viability studies of encapsulated cells using the novel encapsulation material and method. In the final part of the thesis, two applications of thiol-ene-epoxy gaskets for protein detection mi- croarrays are presented. 

Abstract [sv]

Inkapsling av levande celler i mikrokapslar för terapeutiska ändamål är mycket lovande för frmatida behandling av många olika sjukdomar. Emeller- tid är en behandlings effektivitet i hög grad beroende av vilka material som används för inkapsling och vilken teknisk lösning som används för att ska- pa mikrokapslarna. För närvarande återstår det många utmaningar för att omvandla grundforskningresultat till klinisk verklighet, vilken kräver mer än- damålsenliga tillvägagångssätt för att tillverka mikrokapslar i material som är kompatibla med användningsområdena.

De senaste åren har tiol-en baserade polymerer har blivit mycket använda för materialutveckling i stort och för biomedicinska tillämpningar i synnerhet. Med tiol-en kemi kan en mycket stor mängd helt olika syntetiska material framställas, vilket gör tiol-ener intressanta för en mängd applikationer. För närvarande är dock mycket inom denna materialklass outforskat, t.ex. inom material och tillverkningmetodik för mikrofluidiktillämpningar.

I denna avhandling används tiol-ener för cellinkapsling. Sammanslagning av dessa teknologier möjliggör en ny typ av cellinkapsling med nya materi- alegenskaper. En mängd olika tillverkningssätt där tiol-en eller tiol-en-epoxi används för droplet-mikrofluidiksystem utvecklades. Core-shell mikrokapsel- syntes för cell-inkapsling baserat på en ny metod för samtidig syntes av både core och shell utvecklades och karaktäriserades. Slutligen utvecklades ett tiol- en-epoxi system för enkel integrering med proteinmikroarrayer på objektsglas.

I avhandlingens första del presenteras bakgrund och dagens bästa teknolo- gier för terapeutisk cellinkapsling, mikrofluidik och tiol-en baserade material. I avhandlingens andra del presenteras en ny tillverkningsmetod för mikro- strukturerade tiol-en-epoxi artiklar och samtidig syntes av core och shell för mikrokapslar med användande av mikrofluidik. I den tredje delen presenteras cellöverlevandsstudier för de celler som inkapslats med de nya materialen och de nyutvecklade metoderna. I den avslutande delen beskrivs två specifika fall där tiol-en-epoxi komponenter används för proteindetektion och mikroarrayer. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 137 p.
Series
TRITA-EES, 2017:171
Keyword
Microfluidics, microfabrication, cell encapsulation, core-shell particle, microparticle synthesis, off-stoichiometry-thiol-ene, OSTE, OSTE+, lab-on-a-chip, surface modification, core-shell particle co-synthesis, microar- ray, micromixer, bonding, surface modification, droplet microfluidics, protein screening., Mikrofluidik, mikrofabrikation, cellinkapsling, cores-shell kap- sel, mikrokapselsyntes, lab-on-chip, ickestökiometrisk tiol-en, OSTE, OSTE+, ytmodifiering, samtidig syntes av core-shellkapslar, mikroarray, mikromixer, sammanfogning, dropletmikrofluidik, proteindetektion.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Applied Medical Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217995 (URN)978-91-7729-623-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-15, M2, Brinellvägen 64, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, 66673
Note

QC 20171122

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved

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