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Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAH-contaminated soils: identification, availability and mixture toxicity of AhR agonists
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden. (aMan-Technology-Environment Research Centre (MTM))
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contaminated soils are a worldwide problem. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas, especially at old gasworks sites, gas stations and former wood impregnation facilities. Risk assessments of PAHs in contaminated soils are usually based on chemical analysis of a small number of individual PAHs, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of hundreds of PAHs and other related polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the soils. Generally, the mixture composition of PAH-contaminated soils is rarely known and the mechanisms of toxicity and interactions between the pollutants are far from fully understood.

The main objective of this thesis was to characterize remediated PAHcontaminated soils by use of a chemical and bioanalytical approach. Bioassay specific relative potency (REP) values for 38 PAHs and related PACs were developed in the sensitive H4IIE-luc bioassay and used in massbalance analysis of remediated PAH contaminated soils, to assess the contribution of chemically quantified compounds to the overall aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity observed in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Mixtures studies showed additive AhR-mediated effects of PACs, including PAHs, oxy PAHs, methylated PAHs and azaarenes, in the bioassay, which supports the use of REP values in risk assessment. The results from the chemical and bioassay analysis showed that PAH-contaminated soils contained a large fraction of AhR activating compounds whose effect could not be explained by chemical analysis of the 16 priority PAHs. Further chemical identification and biological studies are necessary to determine whether these unknown substances pose a risk to human health or the environment. Results presented in this thesis are an important step in the development of AhR-based bioassay analysis and risk assessment of complex PAH-contaminated samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2013. , 60 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 13
Keyword [en]
Polycyclic aromatic compounds, Soil, Risk assessment, Mixture studies, AhR-mediated activity, REPs, GC/MS, H4IIE-luc bioassay
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30070ISBN: 978-91-7668-961-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-30070DiVA: diva2:638452
Public defence
2013-09-27, Hörsalen, Billbergska huset, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, 701 82 Örebro, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection AgencyKnowledge Foundation
Note

Other funders: Sparbanksstiftelsen Nya and Ångpanneföreningen

Available from: 2013-07-30 Created: 2013-07-30 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exposure time-dependent effects on the relative potencies and additivity of PAHs in the Ah receptor-based H4IIE-luc bioassay
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure time-dependent effects on the relative potencies and additivity of PAHs in the Ah receptor-based H4IIE-luc bioassay
2012 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 5, 1149-1157 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, relative potency factors (REPs) of 16 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated using the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Exposure time-dependent effects on the REPs were examined using 24, 48, and 72?h of exposure. Seven different mixtures of PAHs were tested for additivity at an exposure time of 24?h. Three of the PAH mixtures were also studied at 48 and 72?h of exposure. The mixture toxicities were predicted using the REP concept and the concentration addition (CA) model. Relative potency factor values investigated in the present study were similar to those reported in earlier studies. Declining REPs with an increasing exposure time were shown for all PAHs, indicating that this bioassay approach could be developed to assess the persistency of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonistic PAHs and in the risk assessment of complex PAH mixtures. The results from the mixture studies indicated that additive interactions of PAHs are time dependent. Generally, 48- and 72-h exposures resulted in biological effects that were similar to the CA and REP model predictions, while these models tended to underestimate the effect, to some extent, in the 24-h exposure, at least for the mixtures containing two to four PAHs. Thus, it cannot be ruled out that in the 24-h exposures, the tested PAH mixtures had slight synergistic effects. Further research is needed to identify and test additional AhR activating PAHs and investigate whether the effects in the H4IIE-luc bioassay are additive for more complex samples containing both PAHs and other AhR-activating contaminants. Also, the observed superinduction of luciferase by PAH-mixes warrants studies of whether this also can occur for relevant AhR-mediated endpoints in vivo. 

Keyword
PAHs, AhR agonists, Relative potencies, Mixture toxicity, Concentration-addition
National Category
Chemical Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-22823 (URN)10.1002/etc.1776 (DOI)000302909800032 ()
Available from: 2012-05-14 Created: 2012-05-14 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
2. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 12, 8511-8520 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Environmental Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29084 (URN)10.1007/s11356-013-1787-6 (DOI)000327498600022 ()
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
3. Time-dependent relative potency factors (REPS) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the h4iie-luc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-dependent relative potency factors (REPS) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the h4iie-luc
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The H4IIE-luc transactivation bioassay for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists was used to investigate relative potency factors (REPs) of 22 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated-, methylated- and N-containing derivatives (azaarenes), which are often present in PAH-contaminated soils. Naphthacene and dibenz[ah]acridine exhibited greater AhRmediated potency, whereas lesser-molecular azaarenes were less potent AhR agonists. Six oxy-PAHs had calculable Relative potencies (REPs), but their potencies were less than their parent PAHs. Unlike the parent, unsubstituted PAHs, oxidation of methylated PAHs seemed to increase the AhR-mediated potency of the compounds, with methylanthracene-9,10-dione being almost two times more potent than methylanthracene. Both bioassay and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis were used to examine the exposure time dependent effects on the REPs at 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure in the H4IIE-luc transactivation bioassay. Changes in concentrations of five compounds including the model reference 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the cell culture wells were measured, and the amounts in the cell medium, the cells and adsorbed to the wells determined and the influence on the REPs was studied. Declining REP values with increased duration of exposure were shown for all compounds and proved to be a consequence of the metabolism of PAHs and PAH derivatives in H4IIe-luc cells. The present study provides new knowledge regarding the degradation and distribution of compounds in the wells during exposure.

Keyword
Polycyclic aromatic compounds, monitoring, soils, organic contaminants, in vitro toxicology, toxic equivalents
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32665 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
4. Concentration-addition in risk assessment: prediction of potential AhR-mediated activity in multiple polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) mixtures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration-addition in risk assessment: prediction of potential AhR-mediated activity in multiple polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) mixtures
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complicated because these compounds exist in the environment as complex mixtures of hundreds of individual PAHs and other related polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). In this study, the hypothesis that concentration addition (CA) can be used to predict the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated potency of PACs in mixtures containing various combinations of PACs. Effects of 18 mixtures composed of two to 23 PACs, which included PAHs, azaarenes and oxygenated PAHs, were examined by use of the AhR based H4IIE-luc bioassay. Since greater AhR-mediated activities have been observed in soils contaminated by PAH, investigations were done to test whether soil extract matrix or presence of noneffect PACs might affect responses of the H4IIE-luc bioassay. AhR-mediated activity of the mixture of PACs could be predicted by use of concentration addition. Additive behavior of PACs in multi component mixtures supported the hypothesis that use of concentration addition could be used in risk assessment of PAC- mixtures. However, independent action (IA) could not be used to predict the activity of mixtures of PACs. 

Keyword
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Independent action, concentration addition, H4IIE-luc
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32667 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved

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