Pathogens and other threats to Pinus contorta in northern Sweden
1984 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The background to the large-scale planting of Pinus contorta in northern Sweden is reviewed with an account of the distribution and characteristics ofPi nus contorta within its natural range in western North America. The threatsto successful planting of exotics are discussed in relation to the historicalbackground. Attention is also drawn to parasitic fungi which are infectingPi nus contorta in western Canada, and to the potential threat they representto the indigenous Pi nus sylvestris in Sweden.During a seven-year-period 100 provenances of Pi nus contorta have been investigatedannually with respect to different kinds of damage, primarilythose by parasitic fungi. The study indicates that damage to Pi nus contortaprimarily occurs during the first ten years after planting. Northern provenancesof Pi nus contorta are generally more resistant to pathogens than southernprovenances. Weather damage occurs almost every year among trees ofsouthern and coastal provenance. Even trees of northern provenance have sufferedfrom weather damage due to temperature oscillations during shoot elongation.Severe weather damage is a predisposing factor to infection by secondarypathogens primarily.Gremmeniella abietina. There is a minor correlation betweensevere weather damage and Phacidium infestans. Even northern provenancesof Pinus contorta are infected by Phacidi um infestans in high altitude standsin northern Sweden. Snow b light infection is, however, of a minor importanceto lodgepole pine than to Scots pine due to the rapid early growth of the former.The most productive plants of both Pinus contorta and Pinus sylvestrisare attacked by Phacidi um infestans. Plants not infected by snow b light havea lower height growth than those infected.Severe infection by Gremmeniella abietina has been recorded after voleattack, even among northern provenances of lodgepole pine. So far Pinus contortahas mainly been infected by the same fungi as Pinus sylvestris, with the |exception of Melampsora pinitorqua and Lophodermella sul ci gena. Pinus contorta iis, however more susceptible to infection by Gremmeniella abietina in connec- !tion with vole damage, depending on the more severe injuries to lodgepole pinethan to Scots pine.So far vole damage has been the most severe threat to Pinus contorta innorthern Sweden. Voles prefer lodgepole pine to Scots pine providing vole populationis moderate. At times of high vole populations even Scots pine suffersdamage. Voles attack Pinus contorta even 14 years after planting. The differencein frequency of vole damage among provenances strongly decreased with increasedvole population and repeated attacks from year to year.Tree tilting was first noted five to eight years after planting on sites exposedto strong winds and severe icing.In the central parts of northern Sweden most provenances of Pinus contortaare less attacked by pathogens than the indigenous Pinus sylvestris, and inorthern provenances of lodgepole pine are remarkably productive in thenorthernmost site, despite a relatively high frequency of Phacidium infestar^.Later investigations indicate, however, more severe damage to Pinuscontorta with increasing latitude and altitude in northern Sweden.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1984. , 11 p.
Pinus contorta, Pinus sylvestris, provenance, weather damage, vole damage, parasitic fungi, Gremmeniella abietina, Phacidium infestans, Sweden
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-78979ISBN: 91-7174-168-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-78979DiVA: diva2:638303
1984-05-03, Fysiologi Botanik Hufo, Seminarierum B, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00