Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2354-7258
Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 12, 58- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Although carbohydrate reduction of varying degrees is a popular and controversial dietary trend, potential long-term effects for health, and cancer in specific, are largely unknown. Methods: We studied a previously established low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to the incidence of cancer and specific cancer types in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden. Participants were 62,582 men and women with up to 17.8 years of follow-up (median 9.7), including 3,059 prospective cancer cases. Cox regression analyses were performed for a LCHP score based on the sum of energy-adjusted deciles of carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake labeled 1 to 10, with higher scores representing a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein. Important potential confounders were accounted for, and the role of metabolic risk profile, macronutrient quality including saturated fat intake, and adequacy of energy intake reporting was explored. Results: For the lowest to highest LCHP scores, 2 to 20, carbohydrate intakes ranged from median 60.9 to 38.9% of total energy intake. Both protein (primarily animal sources) and particularly fat (both saturated and unsaturated) intakes increased with increasing LCHP scores. LCHP score was not related to cancer risk, except for a non-dose-dependent, positive association for respiratory tract cancer that was statistically significant in men. The multivariate hazard ratio for medium (9-13) versus low (2-8) LCHP scores was 1.84 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-3.23; p-trend = 0.38). Other analyses were largely consistent with the main results, although LCHP score was associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely in women with high saturated fat intakes, and positively in men with higher LCHP scores based on vegetable protein. Conclusion: These largely null results provide important information concerning the long-term safety of moderate carbohydrate reduction and consequent increases in protein and, in this cohort, especially fat intakes. In order to determine the effects of stricter carbohydrate restriction, further studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient intakes are warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, England: BioMed Central, 2013. Vol. 12, 58- p.
Keyword [en]
Diet, Cancer, Macronutrients, Carbohydrate intake, Protein intake, Fat intake, Cohort study
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Cancer and Oncology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-73577DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-58ISI: 000318985500001OAI: diva2:632913
Available from: 2013-06-25 Created: 2013-06-25 Last updated: 2015-09-16Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(243 kB)82 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 243 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nilsson, Lena MariaJohansson, IngegerdLindahl, BerntHallmans, GöranLenner, PerVan Guelpen, Bethany
By organisation
Nutritional ResearchArctic Research Centre at Umeå UniversityCariologyOccupational and Environmental MedicineDepartment of Biobank ResearchOncologyPathology
In the same journal
Nutrition Journal
Nutrition and DieteticsCancer and Oncology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 82 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 130 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link