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Gated audiovisual speech identification in silence vs. noise: effects on time and accuracy
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (Linnaeus Centre HEAD)
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (Linnaeus Centre HEAD)
2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 00359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the degree to which audiovisual presentation (compared to auditory-only presentation) affected isolation point (IPs, the amount of time required for the correct identification of speech stimuli using a gating paradigm) in silence and noise conditions. The study expanded on the findings of Moradi et al. (under revision), using the same stimuli, but presented in an audiovisual instead of an auditory-only manner. The results showed that noise impeded the identification of consonants and words (i.e., delayed IPs and lowered accuracy), but not the identification of final words in sentences. In comparison with the previous study by Moradi et al., it can be concluded that the provision of visual cues expedited IPs and increased the accuracy of speech stimuli identification in both silence and noise. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of models for speech understanding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 4, no 00359
Keyword [en]
audiovisual identification, gating paradigm, consonant, word, final word in sentences, silence, noise
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94239DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00359ISI: 000331047800001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-94239DiVA: diva2:630736
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 349-2007-8654
Available from: 2013-06-19 Created: 2013-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
In thesis
1. Time is of the essence in speech perception!: Get it fast, or think about it
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time is of the essence in speech perception!: Get it fast, or think about it
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Lyssna nu! : Hör rätt direkt, eller klura på det!
Abstract [en]

The present thesis examined the extent to which background noise influences the isolation point (IP, the shortest time from the onset of speech stimulus required for correct identification of that speech stimulus) and accuracy in identification of different types of speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in high-predictable [HP] and low-predictable [LP] sentences). These speech stimuli were presented in different modalities of presentation (auditory, visual, and audiovisual) to young normal-hearing listeners (Papers 1, 2, and 5). In addition, the present thesis studied under what conditions cognitive resources were explicitly demanded in identification of different types of speech stimuli (Papers 1 and 2). Further, elderly hearing-aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners were compared with regard to the IPs, accuracy, and under what conditions explicit cognitive resources were demanded in identification of auditory speech stimuli in silence (Paper 3). The results showed that background noise resulted in later IPs and reduced the accuracy for the identification of different types of speech stimuli in both modalities of speech presentation. Explicit cognitive resources were demanded in identification of speech stimuli in the auditory-only modality, under the noisy condition, and in the absence of a prior semantic context. In addition, audiovisual presentation of speech stimuli resulted in earlier IPs and more accurate identification of speech stimuli than auditory presentation. Furthermore, a pre-exposure to audiovisual speech stimuli resulted in better auditory speech-in-noise identification than an exposure to auditory-only speech stimuli (Papers 2 and 4). When comparing EHA users and ENH individuals, the EHA users showed inferior performance in the identification of consonants, words, and final words in LP sentences (in terms of IP). In terms of accuracy, the EHA users demonstrated inferior performance only in the identification of consonants and words. Only the identification of consonants and words demanded explicit cognitive resources in the EHA users. Theoretical predictions and clinical implications were discussed.

Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling undersöktes hur mycket bakgrundsbuller inverkar på isolationspunkten (IP, den tidigaste tidpunkt när ett talat stimulus kan identifieras korrekt) och exakthet i identifikation av olika typer av talade stimuli (konsonanter, ord, och ord i final position i högt predicerbara [HP] respektive lågt predicerbara [LP] meningar). Dessa talade stimuli presenterades i olika modaliteteter (auditivt, visuellt, och audiovisuellt) för unga normalhörande deltagare (Artikel 1, 2 och 5). Dessutom jämfördes under vilka betingelser explicita kognitiva resurser krävdes för identifikation av olika typer av talade stimuli (Artikel 1 och 2). Vidare jämfördes äldre hörapparatsanvändare (EHA) och äldre normalhörande (ENH) personer med avseende på IP, exakthet i identifikation, och under vilka betingelser explicita kognitiva resurser krävdes för auditiv identifikation i tystnad (d.v.s. utan bakgrundsbuller) (Artikel 3). Resultaten visade att bakgrundsbuller gav senare IP och sänkte exaktheten för identifikation av olika typer av talade stimuli och i båda modaliteterna för presentation. Explicita kognitiva resurser krävdes vid identifikation av talade stimuli vid rent auditiv presentation med bakgrundsbuller, och när ingen semantisk förhandsinformation presenterades. Dessutom resulterade audiovisuell presentation i tidigare IP och mer exakt identifikation av talade stimuli, jämfört med rent auditiv presentation. Ett ytterligare resultat var att förexponering av audiovisuella talade stimuli resulterade i bättre identifikation av tal i bakgrundsbrus, jämfört med förexponering av enbart auditiva talade stimuli (Artikel 2 och 4). Vid jämförelse av EHA-användare och ENH-personer, hade EHA-användare senare IP i identifikation av konsonanter, ord, och ord i final position i LP-meningar. Dessutom hade EHA-användare mindre exakt identifikation av konsonanter och ord. Endast identifikation av konsonanter och ord krävde explicita kognitiva resurser hos EHA-användare. Teoretiska prediktioner och kliniska implikationer diskuterades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 56 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 635Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 68
Keyword
Noise, auditory speech perception, audiovisual speech perception, hearing aids, Buller, hörsel, auditiv talperception, audiovisuell talperception, hörhjälpmedel
National Category
Other Medical Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111723 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-111723 (DOI)978-91-7519-188-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-28, I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 14:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-29 Created: 2014-10-29 Last updated: 2014-10-31Bibliographically approved

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