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PAPP5 is involved in the tetrapyrrole mediated plastid signalling during chloroplast development
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 3, e60305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The initiation of chloroplast development in the light is dependent on nuclear encoded components. The nuclear genes encoding key components in the photosynthetic machinery are regulated by signals originating in the plastids. These plastid signals play an essential role in the regulation of photosynthesis associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) when proplastids develop into chloroplasts. One of the plastid signals is linked to the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and accumulation of the intermediates the Mg-ProtoIX and its methyl ester Mg-ProtoIX-ME. Phytochrome-Associated Protein Phosphatase 5 (PAPP5) was isolated in a previous study as a putative Mg-ProtoIX interacting protein. In order to elucidate if there is a biological link between PAPP5 and the tetrapyrrole mediated signal we generated double mutants between the Arabidopsis papp5 and the crd mutants. The crd mutant over-accumulates Mg-ProtoIX and Mg-ProtoIX-ME and the tetrapyrrole accumulation triggers retrograde signalling. The crd mutant exhibits repression of PhANG expression, altered chloroplast morphology and a pale phenotype. However, in the papp5crd double mutant, the crd phenotype is restored and papp5crd accumulated wild type levels of chlorophyll, developed proper chloroplasts and showed normal induction of PhANG expression in response to light. Tetrapyrrole feeding experiments showed that PAPP5 is required to respond correctly to accumulation of tetrapyrroles in the cell and that PAPP5 is most likely a component in the plastid signalling pathway down stream of the tetrapyrrole Mg-ProtoIX/Mg-ProtoIX-ME. Inhibition of phosphatase activity phenocopied the papp5crd phenotype in the crd single mutant demonstrating that PAPP5 phosphatase activity is essential to mediate the retrograde signal and to suppress PhANG expression in the crd mutant. Thus, our results suggest that PAPP5 receives an inbalance in the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis through the accumulation of Mg-ProtoIX and acts as a negative regulator of PhANG expression during chloroplast biogenesis and development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 8, no 3, e60305
National Category
Plant Biotechnology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71099DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060305ISI: 000317263900068OAI: diva2:627596
Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2015-05-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Get in tune: chloroplast and nucleus harmony
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Get in tune: chloroplast and nucleus harmony
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
I samklang : harmoni mellan cellens kloroplaster och kärna
Abstract [en]

Photosynthetic eukaryots emerged as a result of several billion years of evolution between proeukaryotic cell and ancestral cyanobacteria that formed modern chloroplasts. The symbiotic relationship led to significant rearrangements in the genomes of the plastid and the nucleus: as many as 90 % of all the plastid genes were transferred to the nucleus. The gene transfer has been accompanied by the development of sophisticated regulatory signaling networks originating in the organelle (retrograde) and in the nucleus (anterograde) that coordinate development of the plastid and ensure adequate cell responses to stress signals. In this thesis I have demonstrated that transcriptional activity of PEP in the chloroplast is essential for proper embryo and seedling development in Arabidopsis thaliana. The function of PEP is dependent on the nuclear encoded PEPassociated factor PRIN2 that is able to sense the redox status of the plastid during seedling development and different stress. In response to the plastid status PRIN2 modulates the transcription activity of the PEP enzyme complex. We further established that PRIN2, as an essential component for full PEP activity, is also required to emit the Plastid Gene Expression (PGE) retrograde signal to regulate the Photosynthesis-Associated Nuclear Genes (PhANG) in the nucleus during early seedling growth via GUN1. On the other hand, regulation of PhANG expression during the High Light (HL) conditions requires functional PRIN2 and PEP activity but is GUN1-independent. Another retrograde signal produced by the developing chloroplast is associated with the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway. We have established that accumulation of the chlorophyll intermediate MgProtoIX-ME in the crd mutant triggers repression of the PhANG expression, and this negative signal is mediated by a cytoplasmic protein complex containing the PAPP5 phosphatase. The nuclear targets that receive the tetrapyrrole mediated signal are GLK1 and GLK2 transcription factors that control the PhANG expression and the expression of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll.

Abstract [sv]

Fotosyntetiserande eukaryoter uppstod från en endosymbiotisk interaktion under några miljarder år mellan en ur-eukaryot och kloroplastens förfader, den prokaryota cyanobakterien. Den symbiotiska händelsen ledde till att kloroplastens och kärnans genom blev väsentligt förändrade. Så småningom överförde kloroplasten så många som 90 % av dess gener till cellkärnan. För att koordinera genutrycket från de två genomen utvecklade växtcellen ett sofistikerat signalsystemen som inkluderar: plastid-kärn (retrograd) och kärn-plastid (anterograd) signalering som styr kloroplastens utveckling och förmåga att anpassa sig till stressförhållanden. Den här avhandlingen beskriver kloroplastens maskineri för genuttryck (PEP) som en nödvändig komponent för embryo- och växtutvecklingen hos Arabidopsis thaliana. PEP funktionen är beroende av det kärnkodade kloroplastproteinet PRIN2 som är associerat med PEP. PRIN2 mottar redox signaler från plastiden och förändrar genuttrycksaktivitet under kloroplastens utvecklingen eller under olika stressförhållanden. Jag visar dessutom att PRIN2 spelar en viktig roll i överföring av kloroplastens signal som kommunicerar genuttrycksaktivitet (PGE) via GUN1 till kärnan där den styr uttryck av de kärnkodade fotosyntetesgenerna (PhANG). Under högljus stressförhållanden styrs dock PhANG-uttrycket av signaler som uppstår från PEP-aktivitet och PRIN2 men som är oberoende av GUN1. Vidare finns det en annan retrograd signal som har sitt ursprung i biosyntesen av tetrapyrroler. Jag har visat att ackumuleringen av tetrapyrrolen MgProtoIX-ME i crd-mutanten framkallar nedreglering av PhANG-uttryck genom interaktion med ett fosfatas (PAPP5) i cytosolen. GLK1 and GLK2 är två transkriptionsfaktorer som tar emot den tetrapyrrole-medierade signalen i sin tur styr biosyntes av chlorofyll och PhANG uttryck.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2014. 87 p.
Arabidopsis thaliana, chloroplast, development, gene expression
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Developmental Biology Other Biological Topics
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96171 (URN)978-91-7601-172-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-03, KBC-huset, Stora hörsalen, KB3B1, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-11-11 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved

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Barajas-Lopez, Juan de DiosKremnev, DmitryShaikhali, JehadPinas-Fernandez, AuroraStrand, Åsa
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