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Coding of three-dimensional video content: Depth image coding by diffusion
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. (Realistic3D)
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three-dimensional (3D) movies in theaters have become a massive commercial success during recent years, and it is likely that, with the advancement of display technologies and the production of 3D contents, TV broadcasting in 3D will play an important role in home entertainments in the not too distant future. 3D video contents contain at least two views from different perspectives for the left and the right eye of viewers. The amount of coded information is doubled if these views are encoded separately. Moreover, for multi-view displays (i.e. different perspectives of a scene in 3D are presented to the viewer at the same time through different angles), either video streams of all the required views must be transmitted to the receiver, or the displays must synthesize the missing views with a subset of the views. The latter approach has been widely proposed to reduce the amount of data being transmitted. The virtual views can be synthesized by the Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) approach from textures and associated depth images. However it is still the case that the amount of information for the textures plus the depths presents a significant challenge for the network transmission capacity. An efficient compression will, therefore, increase the availability of content access and provide a better video quality under the same network capacity constraints.

In this thesis, the compression of depth images is addressed. These depth images can be assumed as being piece-wise smooth. Starting from the properties of depth images, a novel depth image model based on edges and sparse samples is presented, which may also be utilized for depth image post-processing. Based on this model, a depth image coding scheme that explicitly encodes the locations of depth edges is proposed, and the coding scheme has a scalable structure. Furthermore, a compression scheme for block-based 3D-HEVC is also devised, in which diffusion is used for intra prediction. In addition to the proposed schemes, the thesis illustrates several evaluation methodologies, especially, the subjective test of the stimulus-comparison method. It is suitable for evaluating the quality of two impaired images, as the objective metrics are inaccurate with respect to synthesized views.

The MPEG test sequences were used for the evaluation. The results showed that virtual views synthesized from post-processed depth images by using the proposed model are better than those synthesized from original depth images. More importantly, the proposed coding schemes using such a model produced better synthesized views than the state of the art schemes. As a result, the outcome of the thesis can lead to a better quality of 3DTV experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2013. , 36 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948
National Category
Engineering and Technology Signal Processing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19087Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-87103-76-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-19087DiVA: diva2:626000
Presentation
(English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-06-11 Created: 2013-06-06 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Scalable Coding Approach for High Quality Depth Image Compression
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Scalable Coding Approach for High Quality Depth Image Compression
2012 (English)In: 3DTV-Conference, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, Art. no. 6365469- p.Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The distortion by using traditional video encoders (e.g. H.264) on the depth discontinuity can introduce disturbing effects on the synthesized view. The proposed scheme aims at preserving the most significantdepth transition for a better view synthesis. Furthermore, it has a scalable structure. The scheme extracts edge contours from a depth image and represents them by chain code. The chain code and the sampleddepth values on each side of the edge contour are encoded by differential and arithmetic coding. The depthimage is reconstructed by diffusion of edge samples and uniform sub-samples from the low quality depthimage. At low bit rates, the proposed scheme outperforms HEVC intra at the edges in the synthesized views, which correspond to the significant discontinuities in the depth image. The overall quality is also better with the proposed scheme at low bit rates for contents with distinct depth transition. © 2012 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2012
Keyword
3DTV; Depth image coding; View synthesis
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17433 (URN)10.1109/3DTV.2012.6365469 (DOI)2-s2.0-84872086592 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-1-4673-4903-1 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
3DTV-CONFERENCE 2012 The True Vision Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, ETH Zurich, October 15-17, 2012
Available from: 2013-01-16 Created: 2012-11-26 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
2. Depth Map Compression with Diffusion Modes in 3D-HEVC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depth Map Compression with Diffusion Modes in 3D-HEVC
2013 (English)In: MMEDIA 2013 - 5th International Conferences on Advances in Multimedia / [ed] Philip Davies, David Newell, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2013, 125-129 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For three-dimensional television, multiple views can be generated by using the Multi-view Video plus Depth (MVD) format. The depth maps of this format can be compressed efficiently by the 3D extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (3D-HEVC), which has explored the correlations between its two components, texture and associated depth map. In this paper, we introduce two modes for depth map coding into HEVC, where the modes use diffusion. The framework for inter-component prediction of Depth Modeling Modes (DMM) is utilized for the proposed modes. They detect edges from textures and then diffuse an entire block from known adjacent blocks by using Laplace equation constrained by the detected edges. The experimental results show that depth maps can be compressed more efficiently with the proposed diffusion modes, where the bit rate saving can reach 1.25 percentage of the total depth bit rate with a constant quality of synthesized views.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2013
Keyword
Depth map coding, Diffusion modes, HEVC
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18818 (URN)2-s2.0-84905867855 (Scopus ID)978-1-61208-265-3 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conferences on Advances in Multimedia, MMEDIA 2013; Venice; Italy; 21 April 2013 through 26 April 2013; Code 106822
Available from: 2013-04-25 Created: 2013-04-25 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
3. Depth Image Post-processing Method by Diffusion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depth Image Post-processing Method by Diffusion
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering: 3D Image Processing (3DIP) and Applications, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, Art. no. 865003- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multi-view three-dimensional television relies on view synthesis to reduce the number of views being transmitted.  Arbitrary views can be synthesized by utilizing corresponding depth images with textures. The depth images obtained from stereo pairs or range cameras may contain erroneous values, which entail artifacts in a rendered view. Post-processing of the data may then be utilized to enhance the depth image with the purpose to reach a better quality of synthesized views. We propose a Partial Differential Equation (PDE)-based interpolation method for a reconstruction of the smooth areas in depth images, while preserving significant edges. We modeled the depth image by adjusting thresholds for edge detection and a uniform sparse sampling factor followed by the second order PDE interpolation. The objective results show that a depth image processed by the proposed method can achieve a better quality of synthesized views than the original depth image. Visual inspection confirmed the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013
Keyword
Depth image, post-processing, view synthesis
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18537 (URN)10.1117/12.2003183 (DOI)000322110500001 ()2-s2.0-84878288330 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-081949423-8 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
3D Image Processing (3DIP) and Applications 2013; 3-7 Feb 2013; Burlingame, Ca, USA; Conference 8650
Available from: 2013-02-27 Created: 2013-02-27 Last updated: 2017-08-22
4. Subjective Evaluation of an Edge-based Depth Image Compression Scheme
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective Evaluation of an Edge-based Depth Image Compression Scheme
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, Art. no. 86480D- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multi-view three-dimensional television requires many views, which may be synthesized from two-dimensional images with accompanying pixel-wise depth information. This depth image, which typically consists of smooth areas and sharp transitions at object borders, must be consistent with the acquired scene in order for synthesized views to be of good quality. We have previously proposed a depth image coding scheme that preserves significant edges and encodes smooth areas between these. An objective evaluation considering the structural similarity (SSIM) index for synthesized views demonstrated an advantage to the proposed scheme over the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) intra mode in certain cases. However, there were some discrepancies between the outcomes from the objective evaluation and from our visual inspection, which motivated this study of subjective tests. The test was conducted according to ITU-R BT.500-13 recommendation with Stimulus-comparison methods. The results from the subjective test showed that the proposed scheme performs slightly better than HEVC with statistical significance at majority of the tested bit rates for the given contents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013
Keyword
Depth image compression, view synthesis, subjective test
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18539 (URN)10.1117/12.2003053 (DOI)000322737100011 ()2-s2.0-84878743350 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-081949421-4 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
24th IS and T/SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, SD and A 2013; Burlingame, CA; United States; 4 February 2013 through 6 February 2013; Code 97281
Available from: 2013-02-27 Created: 2013-02-27 Last updated: 2017-08-22

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