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Stereoscopic 3D Video Quality of Experience: impact of coding, transmission and display technologies
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. (Realistic3D)
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three-Dimensional (3D) videos are using their success from cinema to home entertainmentmarkets such as TV, DVD, Blu-ray, video games, etc. The video quality isa key factor which decides the success and acceptance of a new service. Visual qualitywill have more severe consequences for 3D than for 2D videos, e.g. eye-strain,headache and nausea.This thesis addresses the stereoscopic 3D video quality of experience that can beinfluenced during the 3D video distribution chain, especially in relation to coding,transmission and display stages. The first part of the thesis concentrates upon the3D video coding and transmission quality over IP based networks. 3D video codingand transmission quality has been studied from the end-users’ point of view byintroducing different 3D video coding techniques, transmission error scenarios anderror concealment strategies. The second part of the thesis addresses the displayquality characterization. Two types of major consumer grade 3D stereoscopic displayswere investigated: glasses with active shutter (SG) technology based display,and those with passive polarization technology (film patterned retarder,FPR) baseddisplay.Themain outcomes can be summarized in three points: firstly the thesis suggeststhat a spatial down-sampling processworking togetherwith high quality video compressingis a efficient means of encoding and transmitting stereoscopic 3D videoswith an acceptable quality of experience. Secondly, this thesis has found that switchingfrom 3D to 2D is currently the best error concealment method for concealingtransmission errors in the 3D videos. Thirdly, this thesis has compared three majorvisual ergonomic parameters of stereoscopic 3D display system: crosstalk, spatialresolution and flicker visibility. The outcomes of the thesis may be of benefit for 3Dvideo industries in order to improve their technologies in relation to delivering abetter 3D quality of experience to customers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2013. , 51 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 98
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19044Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-87103-72-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-19044DiVA: diva2:625187
Presentation
2013-05-17, M102, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Realistic 3D
Available from: 2013-06-04 Created: 2013-06-04 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Subjective quality assessment of error concealment strategies for 3DTV in the presence of asymmetric transmission errors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective quality assessment of error concealment strategies for 3DTV in the presence of asymmetric transmission errors
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2010 (English)In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 18th International Packet Video Workshop (PV, 2010, 193-200 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The transmission of 3DTV sequences over packet based networks may result in degradations of the video quality due to packet loss. In the conventional 2D case, several different strategies are known for extrapolating the missing information and thus concealing the error. In 3D however, the residual error after concealment of one view might leads to binocular rivalry with the correctly received second view. In this paper, three simple alternatives are presented: frame freezing, a reduced playback speed, and displaying only a single view for both eyes, thus effectively switching to 2D presentation. In a subjective experiment the performance in terms of quality of experience of the three methods is evaluated for different packet loss scenarios. Error-free encoded videos at different bit rates have been included as anchor conditions. The subjective experiment method contains special precautions for measuring the Quality of Experience (QoE) for 3D content and also contains an indicator for visual discomfort. The results indicate that switching to 2D is currently the best choice but difficulties with visual discomfort should be expected even for this method.

Keyword
error analysis, quality of service, three-dimensional television, 2D presentation, 3D content, 3DTV, anchor condition, asymmetric transmission errors, error concealment strategy, error free encoded video, packet loss, quality of experience measurement, subjective quality assessment, video quality, visual discomfort, Decoding, Encoding, Observers, Three dimensional displays, Training, Video sequences, Visualization, subjective experiment
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19066 (URN)10.1109/PV.2010.5706838 (DOI)2-s2.0-79952385420 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-9520-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 18th International Packet Video Workshop, December 13-14, 2010 Hongkong
Available from: 2013-06-04 Created: 2013-06-04 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
2. Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating
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2011 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering Volume 7863, 2011 / [ed] A. J. Woods, N. S. Holliman, and N. A. Dodgson, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011, Art. no. 78631T- p.Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Broadcasting of high definition (HD) stereobased 3D (S3D) TV are planned, or has already begun, in Europe, the US, and Japan. Specific data processing operations such as compression and temporal and spatial resampling are commonly used tools for saving network bandwidth when IPTV is the distribution form, as this results in more efficient recording and transmission of 3DTV signals, however at the same time it inevitably brings quality degradations to the processed video. This paper investigated observers quality judgments of state of the art video coding schemes (simulcast H.264/AVC or H.264/MVC), with or without added temporal and spatial resolution reduction of S3D videos, by subjective experiments using the Absolute Category Rating method (ACR) method. The results showed that a certain spatial resolution reduction working together with high quality video compressing was the most bandwidth efficient way of processing video data when the required video quality is to be judged as "good" quality. As the subjective experiment was performed in two different laboratories in two different countries in parallel, a detailed analysis of the interlab differences was performed

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011
Series
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X ; 7863
Keyword
3DTV; ACR; Multiview coding; QoE; Simulcast coding; spatial resampling; temporal resampling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12840 (URN)10.1117/12.872462 (DOI)2-s2.0-79953717152 (Scopus ID)978-081948400-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXII; San Francisco, CA; 24 January 2011 through 27 January 2011; Code 84442
Available from: 2012-10-01 Created: 2010-12-15 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
3. Perceived 3D TV transmission quality assessment: Multi-laboratory results using absolute category rating on quality of experience scale
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived 3D TV transmission quality assessment: Multi-laboratory results using absolute category rating on quality of experience scale
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2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on broadcasting, ISSN 0018-9316, E-ISSN 1557-9611, Vol. 58, no 4, 544-557 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inspired by the rapidly increasing popularity of 3D movies, there is an industrial push for 3DTV services to the home. One important factor for the success and acceptance by the viewers is a positive quality of experience (QoE) of the new service when delivered. The questions of how to efficiently deliver 3DTV service to the home, and how to evaluate the visual quality perceived by end users are a recent research focus. We have investigated users' experience of stereoscopic 3D video quality by preparing two subjective assessment datasets. The first dataset aimed at the evaluation of efficient transmission in the transmission error free case, while the second focused on error concealment. A total of three subjective assessments, two for first dataset and one for the second, were performed using the Absolute Category Rating with Hidden unimpaired Reference video (ACR-HR) method. The experimental setup allows to show that the ACR-HR subjective method provides repeatable results across labs and across conditions for video quality. It was also verified that MVC is more efficient than H.264 simulcast coding. Furthermore it was discovered that based on the same level of quality of experience spatial down-sampling may lead to better bitrate efficiency while temporal down-sampling is not acceptable. When network impairments occur, traditional error 2D concealment methods need to be reinvestigated as they were outperformed by displaying the same view for both eyes (switching to 2D presentation). © 2012 IEEE.

Keyword
3DTV, error concealment, QoE, subjective experiment methodology, subjective video quality assessment, video coding
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17719 (URN)10.1109/TBC.2012.2191031 (DOI)000311680000003 ()2-s2.0-84870302592 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Note

CODEN: IETBA

Available from: 2012-12-14 Created: 2012-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Characterizations of 3D TV: Active vs passive
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizations of 3D TV: Active vs passive
2012 (English)In: SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 2012, Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2012, 137-140 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Two different techniques are dominating the 3D TV market today i.e. active shutter glasses and passive film patterned retarder. Both the techniques have their pros and cons. In this paper we compare these two types of 3D TV3D TV by evaluating them with respect to some important visual ergonomic parameters such as angle dependent cross talk, luminance levels, flicker and resolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2012
Series
SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol 43 issue 1
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19069 (URN)10.1002/j.2168-0159.2012.tb05730.x (DOI)
Conference
SID symposium
Available from: 2013-06-04 Created: 2013-06-04 Last updated: 2016-03-23Bibliographically approved

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