Regulatory T cell phenotype and function 4 years after GAD–alum treatment in children with type 1 diabetes
2013 (English)In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 172, no 3, 394-402 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) was effective in preserving insulin secretion in a Phase II clinical trial in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. In addition, GAD-alum treated patients increased CD4+CD25hi forkhead box protein 3+ (FoxP3+) cell numbers in response to in-vitro GAD65 stimulation. We have carried out a 4-year follow-up study of 59 of the original 70 patients to investigate long-term effects on the frequency and function of regulatory T cells after GAD-alum treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with GAD65 for 7 days and expression of regulatory T cell markers was measured by flow cytometry. Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25hiCD127lo) and effector T cells (CD4+CD25–CD127+) were further sorted, expanded and used in suppression assays to assess regulatory T cell function after GAD-alum treatment. GAD-alum-treated patients displayed higher frequencies of in-vitro GAD65-induced CD4+CD25+CD127+ as well as CD4+CD25hiCD127lo and CD4+FoxP3+ cells compared to placebo. Moreover, GAD65 stimulation induced a population of CD4hi cells consisting mainly of CD25+CD127+, which was specific of GAD-alum-treated patients (16 of 25 versus one of 25 in placebo). Assessment of suppressive function in expanded regulatory T cells revealed no difference between GAD-alum- and placebo-treated individuals. Regulatory T cell frequency did not correlate with C-peptide secretion throughout the study. In conclusion, GAD-alum treatment induced both GAD65-reactive CD25+CD127+ and CD25hiCD127lo cells, but no difference in regulatory T cell function 4 years after GAD-alum treatment.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. Vol. 172, no 3, 394-402 p.
CD4 T cells (T helper, Th0, Th1, Th2, Th3, Th17), diabetes, immune regulation, regulatory T cells (Treg), therapy/immunotherapy
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93379DOI: 10.1111/cei.12078ISI: 000318073000004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-93379DiVA: diva2:624505
Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|K2008-55x-20652-01-3|Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation (Barndiabetesfonden)||Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden||JDRF|1-2008-106|Ile-de-France CODDIM||Inserm Avenir Program||2013-05-312013-05-312013-10-04Bibliographically approved